The JAK/STAT Pathway in Skeletal Muscle Pathophysiology

Conclusion and Perspectives The IL-6/JAK/STAT signaling cascade plays a dominant role in skeletal muscle pathophysiology. IL-6 autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions assign to its downstream effectors pivotal importance in skeletal muscle-wasting-associated diseases and other multiple system diseases where muscle acts in communication with other organs. Targeting the components of the JAK/STAT pathway recently emerged as a strategic approach for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and human cancer. This review highlights the opposite outcomes on muscle biology caused by the amount of local and systemic release of IL-6. Transient release and short-term acute action have positive effects, by increasing the source of progenitors for regeneration and growth in skeletal muscle. This also affects metabolic processes in other organs, since it stimulates glucose production. In different circumstances, chronically elevated levels of IL-6 have negative consequences, promoting muscle atrophy through different mechanisms not completely yet elucidated. These antithetical effects can also be a key to the several discrepancies observed with different experimental approaches aimed to decipher the IL-6/JAK/STAT role in skeletal muscle functions. Moreover, the different cell and tissue compartments where IL-6 is produced and acts can account for the conflicting effects observed on muscle repair, growth, and wasting. Additionally, a role in these dichotomous outcomes can also be car...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research

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ConclusionsFindings are discussed in the context of the broader research literature, weaknesses in the field are noted, and numerous meaningful directions for future research are presented.
Source: Journal of Adolescence - Category: Child Development Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe implication of these results is that policies aimed at reducing inequalities between residential neighborhoods are likely to beneficially affect all racial/ethnic groups but are not sufficient in reducing racial/ethnic disparities in intergenerational transmission of socio-economic status.
Source: Journal of Adolescence - Category: Child Development Source Type: research
Publication date: February 2020Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 58Author(s): Paulo Ricardo H. Rocha, Maria da C.P. Saraiva, Marco A. Barbieri, Alexandre A. Ferraro, Heloisa BettiolAbstractThe present study investigated the association between preterm birth PT conditions, intrauterine growth restriction IUGR and the combination of both PT-IUGR with infant motor development. A cohort with 1006 children was monitored during prenatal, at birth, and two years of age. Bayley-III screening was used to evaluate of fine and gross motor skills. The data did not indicate an increased risk for motor delays in the PT or ...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - Category: Child Development Source Type: research
This study revealed that pre-emulsification can restrict the fat accumulation and adjust the texture of processed cheese. And the results of this study will help us understand the effects of pre-emulsification on processed cheese.
Source: LWT Food Science and Technology - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
This study determined the bio-control efficacy of Pichia anomala alone and supplemented with 1% chitosan in the grapes against blue mold disease. The result showed that chitosan (1%) better induced the bio-control efficacy of P. anomala. P. anomala supplemented with 1% w/v chitosan significantly reduced the disease incidence, lesion diameter and natural decay of grapes without affecting the fruit quality compared to the control. In addition it enhanced the activities of disease defence related enzymes like ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and chitinase (CHI); and decreased the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen pero...
Source: LWT Food Science and Technology - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: International Journal of Gastronomy and Food ScienceAuthor(s): Máirtín Mac Con Iomaire
Source: International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
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Source: Food Hydrocolloids - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
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Source: Clinical Gerontologist - Category: Geriatrics Tags: Clin Gerontol Source Type: research
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Source: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Fetal Pediatr Pathol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: Zoologischer AnzeigerAuthor(s): Lu Liu, Bao-Zhen HuaAbstractBittacidae is the the only cosmopolitan family in Mecoptera and little information is available on the larval morphology in most genera. Here, we investigate the morphology of the first-instar larva of the two-tailed hanging-fly Bicaubittacus longiprocessus (Huang and Hua, 2005) using light and scanning electron microscopy. The larva is eruciform and possesses three pairs of thoracic legs and eight pairs of abdominal prolegs. The head bears a median ocellus on the frons and a pair of compound eyes with sev...
Source: A Journal of Comparative Zoology - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
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