Autoimmune Disease in Women: Endocrine Transition and Risk Across the Lifespan

Autoimmune Disease in Women: Endocrine Transition and Risk Across the Lifespan Maunil K. Desai1 and Roberta Diaz Brinton2,3* 1School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States 2Center for Innovation in Brain Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States 3Departments of Pharmacology and Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States Women have a higher incidence and prevalence of autoimmune diseases than men, and 85% or more patients of multiple autoimmune diseases are female. Women undergo sweeping endocrinological changes at least twice during their lifetime, puberty and menopause, with many women undergoing an additional transition: pregnancy, which may or may not be accompanied by breastfeeding. These endocrinological transitions exert significant effects on the immune system due to interactions between the hormonal milieu, innate, and adaptive immune systems as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and thereby modulate the susceptibility of women to autoimmune diseases. Conversely, pre-existing autoimmune diseases themselves impact endocrine transitions. Concentration-dependent effects of estrogen on the immune system; the role of progesterone, androgens, leptin, oxytocin, and prolactin; and the interplay between Th1 and Th2 immune responses together maintain a delicate balance between host defense, immunological tolerance and autoimmunity. In this review, multiple autoimm...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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Source: Nefrologia : publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Nefrologia Source Type: research
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