Generation of Human Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Organoids (POs) for Regenerative Medicine.

Generation of Human Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Organoids (POs) for Regenerative Medicine. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019 Apr 26;: Authors: Navarro-Tableros V, Gomez Y, Brizzi MF, Camussi G Abstract Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an auto-immune condition characterized by the loss of pancreatic β-cells. The curative approach for highly selected patients is the pancreas or the pancreatic islet transplantation. Nevertheless, these options are limited by a growing shortage of donor organs and by the requirement of immunosuppression.Xenotransplantation of porcine islets has been extensively investigated. Nevertheless, the strong xenoimmunity and the risk of transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses, have limited their application in clinic. Generation of β-like cells from stem cells is one of the most promising strategies in regenerative medicine. Embryonic, and more recently, adult stem cells are currently the most promising cell sources exploited to generate functional β-cells in vitro. A number of studies demonstrated that stem cells could generate functional pancreatic organoids (POs), able to restore normoglycemia when implanted in different preclinical diabetic models. Nevertheless, a gradual loss of function and cell dead are commonly detected when POs are transplanted in immunocompetent animals. So far, the main issue to be solved is the post-transplanted islet loss, due to the host immune attack...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

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Objectives We aimed to determine whether responsive insulin-producing cells (IPCs) could be generated from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) isolated from patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods We isolated ADSCs from adipose tissue of 4 patients (one patient with T1DM and 3 nondiabetic patients), who underwent surgery and differentiated them into IPCs with using a 2-step xeno-antigen free, 3-dimensional culture method. Characteristics of isolated ADSCs, in vitro cell quality, programmed cell death ligand-1 (PDL-1) expression, and transplantation into streptozotocin induced diabetic nude mice were inve...
Source: Pancreas - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
In conclusion, it remains unclear if brain-specific regional and temporal changes occur in the expression of the different APP variants during AD progression. Since APP is also found in blood cells, assessing the changes in APP mRNA expression in peripheral blood cells from AD patients has been considering an alternative. However, again the quantification of APP mRNA in peripheral blood cells has generated controversial results. Brain APP protein has been analyzed in only a few studies, probably as it is difficult to interpret the complex pattern of APP variants and fragments. We previously characterized the soluabl...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
AbstractThe history of microencapsulation of live cells starts from an old idea of Thomas M. S. Chang in 1964, thereafter applied to isolated pancreatic islets by Anthony M. Sun in 1980. The original aim was to provide isolated cells with an immune ‐protective shield, to prevent physical contact between the transplanted cells and the host’s immune system, with retention of the microcapsules’ biocompatibility and physical‐chemical properties over time. In particular, this revolutionary approach essentially applied to islet grafts, in di abetic not immunosuppressed recipients, at pre‐clinical (rodents), and...
Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research
Conclusions: These results provide the rationale for a new approach to improve MSC therapy for T1DM by altering the gut microbiota.
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
This study aims to investigate if the synergistically protective effect on damaged pancreatic tissues can be observed in STZ-induced DM rats with autologous transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) coupling with oral administration of resveratrol. Pathological conditions can be recognized in DM rats with pancreatic damage, including reduction of islet size, suppression of survival markers, downregulation of AMPK/Sirt1 axis, and activation of apoptotic signaling. Autologous transplantation of ADSC slightly improves pancreatic functions, whereas autologous transplantation of ADSC coupling with oral administration...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research
Abstract Transplantation technologies of pancreatic islets as well as stem cell-derived pancreatic beta cells encapsulated in hydrogel for the induction of immunoprotection could advance to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus, if the hydrogel transplants acquire retrievability through mitigating foreign body reactions after transplantation. Here, we demonstrate that the diameter of the fiber-shaped hydrogel transplants determines both in vivo cellular deposition onto themselves and their retrievability. Specifically, we found that the in vivo cellular deposition is significantly mitigated when the diameter is 1.0 ...
Source: Biomaterials - Category: Materials Science Authors: Tags: Biomaterials Source Type: research
AbstractType 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic metabolic disease caused by the destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Human dental pulp stem cells represent a promising source for cell-based therapies, owing to their easy, minimally invasive surgical access, and high proliferative capacity. It was reported that human dental pulp stem cells can differentiate into a pancreatic cell lineage in vitro; however , few studies have investigated their effects on diabetes. Our study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of intravenous and intrapancreatic transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells in a rat model ...
Source: Anatomical Science International - Category: Anatomy Source Type: research
Authors: Wu Q, Zheng S, Qin Y, Zheng X, Chen H, Yang T, Zhang M Abstract Stem cells (SCs) therapy is a new promising therapeutic modality for type 1 diabetes (T1DM). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of stem cells transplantation (SCT) in patients with T1DM. We searched five literature databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, WanFang and CENTRAL) up to 31 October 2019. 29 studies (487 patients with T1DM) were included in our meta-analysis. There was no substantial publication bias. Meta-analysis showed the SCT had significant effect to decrease HbA1c (SMD, 1.4...
Source: Endocrine Journal - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr J Source Type: research
This study is par for the course, looking at Japanese Olympic participants. Interestingly, it hints at the upper end of the dose-response curve for physical activity, in that a longer career as a professional athlete may be detrimental in comparison to lesser degrees of exercise and training. From this large, retrospective cohort study targeting 3546 Japanese Olympic athletes, we observed significant lower mortality among Olympians compared with the Japanese general population. The overall standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 0.29. The results were consistent with previous studies conducted in other non-Asian co...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Differentiation Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Pancreatic β-Cells. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020 Jan 31;: Authors: Aydin S, Sağraç D, Şahin F Abstract Stem cells having the capability to differentiate into other type of cells and renewing themselves, gained so much importance in recent years. Investigations in stem cells revealed that mesenchymal stem cells can successfully differentiate into other type of cells like adipocytes, hepatocytes, osteocytes, neurocytes and chondrocytes. In addition, these cells can also differentiate into insulin-producing beta cells. Insulin is a crucial h...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
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