Generation of Human Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Organoids (POs) for Regenerative Medicine.

Generation of Human Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Organoids (POs) for Regenerative Medicine. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019 Apr 26;: Authors: Navarro-Tableros V, Gomez Y, Brizzi MF, Camussi G Abstract Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an auto-immune condition characterized by the loss of pancreatic β-cells. The curative approach for highly selected patients is the pancreas or the pancreatic islet transplantation. Nevertheless, these options are limited by a growing shortage of donor organs and by the requirement of immunosuppression.Xenotransplantation of porcine islets has been extensively investigated. Nevertheless, the strong xenoimmunity and the risk of transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses, have limited their application in clinic. Generation of β-like cells from stem cells is one of the most promising strategies in regenerative medicine. Embryonic, and more recently, adult stem cells are currently the most promising cell sources exploited to generate functional β-cells in vitro. A number of studies demonstrated that stem cells could generate functional pancreatic organoids (POs), able to restore normoglycemia when implanted in different preclinical diabetic models. Nevertheless, a gradual loss of function and cell dead are commonly detected when POs are transplanted in immunocompetent animals. So far, the main issue to be solved is the post-transplanted islet loss, due to the host immune attack...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

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Conclusion: In a representative Brazilian population of T1DM patients, those with IDAA1c ≤ 9 presented a lower frequency of MC, as well as fewer episodes of hypoglycemia, in the month prior to the analysis.
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Filomena Corbo1†, Giacomina Brunetti2*†, Pasquale Crupi3, Sara Bortolotti4, Giuseppina Storlino4, Laura Piacente5, Alessia Carocci1, Alessia Catalano1, Gualtiero Milani1, Graziana Colaianni4, Silvia Colucci2, Maria Grano4, Carlo Franchini1, Maria Lisa Clodoveo6, Gabriele D'Amato7 and Maria Felicia Faienza5 1Department of Pharmacy-Drug science, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy 2Section of Human Anatomy and Histology, Department of Basic and Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy 3CREA-VE, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics&ndas...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Our results show worldwide efficacy of BM-MSCs in improving functional outcomes in pre-clinical animal models of stroke and support testing these cells in clinical trials in various ranges of time windows using different delivery routes. The continued growing number of publications showing functional benefit of BM-MSCs are now adding limited value to an oversaturated literature spanning 18 years. Researchers should focus on identifying definitive mechanisms on how BM-MSCs lead to benefit in stroke models. Introduction Ischemic stroke is the 5th leading cause of death and the leading cause of long term di...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion The high prevalence of comorbidities in patients with stroke indicates the need for therapies in preclinical studies that take into account these comorbidities in order to avoid failures in translation to the patient. Preclinical studies are beginning to evaluate the efficacy of MSC treatment in stroke associated with comorbidities, especially hypertension, for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Regarding aging and diabetes, only ischemic stroke studies have been performed. For the moment, few studies have been performed and contradictory results are being reported. These contradictory results may be due to the u...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
The objective of this report was to summarize current knowledge of CC, squamous intraepithelial lesions, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in non-HIV immunocompromised women to determine best practices for CC surveillance in this population and provide recommendations for screening. We evaluated those with solid organ transplant, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, and a number of autoimmune diseases. A panel of health care professionals involved in CC research and care was assembled to review and discuss existing literature on the subject and come to conclusions about screening based on available evidence and expe...
Source: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease - Category: OBGYN Tags: HPV-Associated Disease: Diagnosis and Management Source Type: research
In vitro generation of pancreatic β-cells for diabetes treatment. I. β-like cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2019 Mar 14;: Authors: Cierpka-Kmiec K, Wronska A, Kmiec Z Abstract Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by the lack of pancreatic β-cells that had been destroyed as a result of an autoimmune response. Therefore, in patients with T1D, the replacement therapy with functional β-cells derived from extrinsic sources could be a preferable option...
Source: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica - Category: Cytology Tags: Folia Histochem Cytobiol Source Type: research
This study showed that potential vicious cycles underlying ARDs are quite diverse and unique, triggered by diverse and unique factors that do not usually progress with age, thus casting doubts on the possibility of discovering the single molecular cause of aging and developing the single anti-aging pill. Rather, each disease appears to require an individual approach. However, it still cannot be excluded that some or all of these cycles are triggered by fundamental processes of aging, such as chronic inflammation or accumulation of senescent cells. Nevertheless, experimental data showing clear cause and effect relationships...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Abstract Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a disorder that decimates pancreatic β-cells which produce insulin. Direct pancreatic islet transplantation cannot serve as a widespread therapeutic modality owing to the need for lifelong immunosuppression and donor shortage. Therefore, several encapsulation techniques have been developed to enclose the islets in semipermeable vehicles that will allow oxygen and nutrient input as well as insulin, other metabolites and waste output, while accomplishing immunoisolation. Although encapsulation technology continues to face significant obstacles, recent advances in mate...
Source: Drug Discovery Today - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Drug Discov Today Source Type: research
Cellular signaling pathways regulating β-cell proliferation as a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of diabetes. Exp Ther Med. 2018 Oct;16(4):3275-3285 Authors: Jiang WJ, Peng YC, Yang KM Abstract It is established that a decrease in β-cell number and deficiency in the function of existing β-cells contribute to type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, a major focus of current research is to identify novel methods of improving the number and function of β-cells, so as to prevent and/or postpone the development of diabetes mellitus and potentially reverse diabetes me...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes DOI: 10.1055/a-0661-5873Diabetes type 1 (T1D) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by permanent destruction of the insulin-secreting β-cells in pancreatic islets, resulting in a deficiency of the glucose-lowering hormone insulin and persisting high blood glucose levels. Insulin has to be replaced by regular subcutaneous injections, and blood glucose level must be monitored due to the risk of hyperglycemia. Recently, transplantation of new pancreatic β-cells into T1D patients has come to be considered one of the most potentially effective treatments for this disease. Therefore,...
Source: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Mini-Review Source Type: research
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