The Role of New Technologies in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

Conclusions The discovery of JAK2V617F mutation in BCR-ABL1-negative MPNs by four different international cooperative groups in 2005 (2–5) led to significant insights on the pathogenesis of these disorders. In fact, this mutation results in a gain-of-function with activation of cytokine and growth factor receptors, and thus of the downstream JAK-STAT pathway (79, 95–98). The JAK2 point mutation in exon 12, present in a small percentage of patients with PV, is able to induce the MPN phenotype through the same pathogenic mechanism (6, 7). In 2006 the MPLW515L/K was reported in ET and PMF patients (44, 45) and demonstrated to be able to aberrantly activate JAK-STAT pathway through a gain-of function similar to that of JAK2, thus leading to megakaryocytic proliferation (8–10). More recently, in 2013 two different groups demonstrated a spectrum of mutations in CALR gene that cause frameshifts of one base pair in the last coding exon with a generation of a protein with new C terminus and a tail of 36 aminoacids (11, 12). Although it was soon clear that JAK-STAT signaling pathway was consistently activated in CALR mutated cells (53, 99), only recently it has been demonstrated that the mutant CALR protein is able to bind to the MPL receptor and activate it independently of the TPO presence itself (54–57). Consistently with the fact that all these mutations cause JAK-STAT pathway activation, ruxolitinib, the first JAK1/2 inhibitor, is able to exert clinical ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Authors: Sue S Abstract The research articles in this special issue edited by Zamboanga and Lui focus on sociocultural factors and processes that underlie ethnic disparities in alcohol use in the United States. Major ethnic minority groups such as African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics are included. Contributors to this special issue present their research findings and draw implications for research, theory, and intervention. The focus is clearly needed. We know enough to say that serious alcohol-use disparities exist; finding effective solutions to these problems is vitally important, especially in our ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 November 2019Source: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 523Author(s): N. Suebsing, C. Bootjomchai, V. Promarak, R. LaopaiboonAbstractA new glass system of calcium-alumino-silicate doped with Sm2O3 and co-doped with Sm2O3 ± Eu2O3 was fabricated in order to improve the efficiency of the red emission for phosphor glass materials. The optical properties of the glass samples were studied by measurements using UV–vis absorption spectra and excitation energy. The results showed that 403 nm of photon energy is effective to elevate the electron in a ground state to an excited state. Thi...
Source: Journal of Non Crystalline Solids - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Authors: Michalek J, Brychtova S, Pink R, Dvorak Z Abstract Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a growing problem worldwide. Several biological and molecular criteria have been established for making a prognosis of OSCC. One of the most important factors affecting the risk of tumor recurrence and overall prognosis is perineural invasion and bone invasion. Perineural invasion is defined as a tumor spreading and the ability of tumor cells to penetrate around or through the nerve tissue. Perineural invasion can cause the tumor to spread to distant areas from the primary tumor location. One possible explanation for ...
Source: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Our experience shows that patients with diagnoses of acute retinal necrosis or progressive outer retinal necrosis have a poor visual prognosis. The occurrence of cytomegalovirus retinitis signifies a very unfavorable survival prognosis in patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; the patients in our study died within 1 year from cytomegalovirus retinitis diagnosis. PMID: 31435074 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub Source Type: research
In an ideal world, all IVF clinics would be equally good. They would have high quality control standards; they would be open and transparent; and would share information proactively and routinely with all their patients .This way, whether or not patients got pregnant, they would have peace of mind that they received good quality treatment.Tragically, this just does not happen in India today , and sadly the government hasn't done a good job with regulating IVF clinics, which means the quality can be extremely patchy. This means that while we do have some world class clinics, we have some terrible ones as well, which take th...
Source: Dr.Malpani's Blog - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: blogs
Physician burnout has become a hot topic among urologists since we started appearing on the most burned out list in well-publicized multispecialty studies such as Medscape.1 Once concern about these multispecialty studies is that urologists make up about 1% of the study population. The 2016 American Urological Association Census found that the rates of burnout among practicing urologists were better than previously reported.2 Less is known about burnout among urology residents and this study is the first to look exclusively at urology trainees to assess burnout.
Source: Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research
For men with localized prostate cancer (CaP), radical prostatectomy (RP) as well as radiotherapy (RT) was associated with lower incidences of progression and metastases than was active monitoring.1 Meanwhile, prospective trial showed these patients with a long life expectancy would benefit from surgical intervention with a mean gain of almost 3-year of life.2 Unfortunately, when localized CaP progressed to incurable metastatic disease ancestral subclones and stromal micro-environment evolved dynamically in space and time following principles of selective evolution, underpinning important emergent features such as therapeut...
Source: Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research
Retrospective evaluations of the treatment of the primary tumor in the setting of metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) are prevalent in the recent literature. The majority of these reports have favored the addition of local therapy1 and form the hypothesis generating support for recently completed and ongoing prospective randomized studies.2,3 Interestingly, in the present retrospective study, cancer-specific survival was not improved with local therapy. This is intriguing since the patients were subject to similar selection biases present in other retrospective reviews favoring local therapy.
Source: Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research
Adenocarcinoma of the prostate is a major health concern in the United States, with 31,620 deaths estimated for 2019.1 A recent population-based study of nearly 400,000 patients found that radical prostatectomy (RP) was the most commonly utilized treatment in the United States for intermediate- and high-risk patients.2 In men under aged 70 in these risk groups, RP accounted for 48%-82% of first line therapy.2 These patients with intermediate- and high-risk disease represent the population most to be at high risk for recurrence following RP, historically defined by the presence of extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle in...
Source: Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research
The accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prostate cancer detection has been demonstrated in multiple studies, but the interpretation of prostate MRI can be quite challenging. In particular, changes caused by aging (ie, hyperplasia) or by pathologic conditions such as inflammation or cancer can lead to a nearly singular appearance on MRI for each prostate. Additionally, the lack of robust standardization across MRI scanners hampers the adoption of quantitative parameters for imaging analysis.
Source: Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research
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