Inhibition of Murine Breast Cancer Metastases by Hydrophilic As4S4 Nanoparticles Is Associated With Decreased ROS and HIF-1 α Downregulation

In conclusion, e-As4S4 holds great potential for an alternative therapeutics in the treatment of breast cancer, due to its unique function of correcting the aggressive microenvironment. Introduction Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer mortality, which has been one major challenge in clinical treatment (1). In particular, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the absence of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR) and HER2 receptors, which is one of the most aggressive types of breast cancers, marked by high rates of relapse, visceral metastases and early death (2, 3). The treatment of TNBC is local therapy with surgery and/or radiotherapy followed by standard anthracycline and/or taxane-based systemic adjuvant treatment (3, 4). Despite an initial response to systemic chemotherapy, patients with TNBC often follow an aggressive course of progression and metastasis and develop multidrug resistance to conventional therapies (5). Besides, patients with TNBC are less sensitive to typical endocrine therapies due to lack of the receptors (6). Therefore, there is still an unmet need in the treatment of breast cancer, and the development of new therapeutics for preventing and treating metastasis for the management of TNBC patients is of great significance. Arsenic sulfide (As4S4, or termed as realgar) is a mineral drug that can be orally administrated and has shown a certain therapeutic effect in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) (7...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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