Effects of Neurotrophic Factors in Glial Cells in the Central Nervous System: Expression and Properties in Neurodegeneration and Injury

Conclusion and Future Aspects This review summarizes available NTF expression data, compiles existing evidence on the effects of glial NTF signaling in healthy conditions and in disease models (Figure 1), and highlights the importance of this topic for future studies. The relationship between NTFs and glia is crucial for both the developing and adult brain. While some of these factors, such as NT-3 and CNTF, have highly potent effects on gliogenesis, others like BDNF and GDNF, are important for glia-mediated synapse formation. Neurotrophic factors play significant roles during neurodegenerative disorders. In many cases, these are evident by their altered temporal regulation in glial cells. As some exogenously administered NTFs, such as BDNF and NGF, affect glial activation states with beneficial effects on disease outcomes, they are promising candidates for future therapies. Particularly in the case of ischemic stroke, modulation of inflammation and astrocyte scar formation could prevent delayed damage and widen the current, narrow therapeutic time window. The survival and differentiation promoting properties of NTFs on glia have also been established. In demyelinating disease models, NT-3 and BDNF have been linked to less severe phenotypes. As such, their potential to ameliorate the symptoms of and enhance recovery in diseases such as MS should not be overlooked. An improved understanding of the involvement of glia and NTFs in the etiology of neurological disorders is esse...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of possible repercussions of the celiac trunk stenosis to peripancreatic arteries should be elevated. Restoration of physiological blood flow by removing pathologic anatomy should be performed. Since there is no correlation between the size of a visceral aneurysm and the risk of rupture, having a high postrupture mortality, pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms should be treated even if asymptomatic. Surgical treatment remains the mainstay treatment of the Dunbar syndrome complicated by visceral aneurysms. PMID: 31961777 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Chirurgica Belgica - Category: Surgery Tags: Acta Chir Belg Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental MutagenesisAuthor(s): Donna Goodenow, Faith Emmanuel, Chase Berman, Mark Sahyouni, Christine RichardsonAbstractBioflavonoids have a similar chemical structure to etoposide, the well-characterized topoisomerase II (Top2) poison, and evidence shows that they also induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and promote genome rearrangements. The purpose of this study was to determine the kinetics of bioflavonoid-induced DSB appearance and repair, and their dependence on Top2. Cells were exposed to bioflavonoids individu...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: European UrologyAuthor(s): Weiming Zhao, Cheng Zhang, Chengjun Jin, Zijian Zhang, Deling Kong, Wanhai Xu, Youcheng Xiu
Source: European Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
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Source: Social Work in Health Care - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
In response to international obligations many Western states have strengthened their responsibility for crime victims' access to support services. This is also the case in Finland and Norway where this interview study explored the views of representatives ...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
OBJECTIVE: Individuals exposed to trauma, especially those who develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are at a higher risk of suffering from chronic pain as well as altered pain perception and modulation. However, the underlying mechanisms of these ...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: The American Journal of SurgeryAuthor(s): Kenneth H. Perrone, Su Yang, Hossein Mohamadipanah, Brett Wise, Anna Witt, Cassidi Goll, Carla PughAbstractBackgroundWe hypothesized that differences in motion data during a simulated laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVH) can be used to stratify top and lower tier performers and streamline video review.Materials and methodsSurgical residents (N = 94) performed a simulated partial LVH repair while wearing motion tracking sensors. We identified the top ten and lower ten performers based on a final product quality score ...
Source: The American Journal of Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Authors: Chen J, Xu S, Zhou W, Wu L, Wang L, Li W Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exendin-4 (Ex-4) on ventricular arrhythmias and calcium sparks-mediated calcium leak in a myocardial infarction-heart failure model.We studied the influence of exendin-4 on ventricular arrhythmogenesis in a rat myocardial infarction-heart failure model. In vivo arrhythmia studies (electrocardiogram [ECG] telemetry studies), ex vivo arrhythmia studies calcium sparks tests, and analysis of total and phosphorylated ryanodine receptor (RyR) 2 and CaMK-II were carried out in sham group, myocardial infarction...
Source: International Heart Journal - Category: Cardiology Tags: Int Heart J Source Type: research
We report the case of a 33-year-old woman with no history of coronary risk factors or chest pain who experienced intermittent chest pain at rest for several minutes from 2 PM. At 8 AM the next day, chest pain recurred and persisted for about 1 hour. She was transported to our hospital by ambulance, where electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation in the precordial leads, and blood tests showed elevation of cardiac markers. She was diagnosed with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Because she was a young woman without any risk factors, coronary spastic angina was suspected. Coronary angiography without intracoronary nitrate adm...
Source: International Heart Journal - Category: Cardiology Tags: Int Heart J Source Type: research
This study aimed to assess the perioperative outcomes of adjunctive hypnotherapy undergoing transfemoral TAVI with LACS.Consecutive patients (n = 143) with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis who underwent transfemoral TAVI with LACS only (n = 107) or with LACS and hypnotherapy (n = 36) between January 2015 and April 2016 were retrospectively included in the study. The clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups. The LACS with hypnotherapy group had a significantly shorter length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU; LACS only versus LACS with hypnotherapy: 4.0 (4.0-5.5) days versus 3.0 (3.0-5.0) days, P
Source: International Heart Journal - Category: Cardiology Tags: Int Heart J Source Type: research
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