Is the Brain a Key Player in Glucose Regulation and Development of Type 2 Diabetes?

Conclusion Taken together, evidence from animal and human studies demonstrates that the brain detects levels of circulating nutrients and hormones and consequently organizes an outward response that contributes to the regulation of whole-body glucose homeostasis. However, there are major knowledge gaps about the exact nature of this response and its relative importance compared to peripheral processes. As we have seen, animal studies have provided an anatomical map of CNS glucose regulation and have identified important neurons and neural circuits involved. Additionally, the CNS sensing of key nutrients and hormones has been characterized in detail and the intracellular signaling pathways have been outlined for most of them. Studies of humans entail inherent methodological challenges compared to animal studies that may explain the inconsistent findings in some areas. There are some intriguing epidemiological relationships between CNS and metabolic disorders and dysregulation of the ANS or HPA axis have both been proposed as the mediators of this connection. Attempts to demonstrate this have yielded somewhat discordant findings, however. The extra-pancreatic effects of diazoxide and GLP-1 may very well be extra-cerebral as well and the favorable effect of intranasal oxytocin on glucose metabolism is interesting but not necessarily secondary to actions in the CNS. The use of somatostatin and octreotide in some studies to inhibit pancreatic hormone secretion may possibly indu...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research

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Authors: Ismaiil LA, Joumaa WH, Moustafa ME Abstract The excessive exposure of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from mobile phones or their base stations antenna may influence oxidative stress and development of diabetic complications. Here, we investigated the effects of exposing type 2 diabetic rats to EMR of 900 MHz emitted from GSM mobile phone antenna for 24 hours/day over a period of 28 days on hyperglycemia and hepatic oxidative stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (12 rats/group): control rats, normal rats exposed to EMR, ...
Source: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine - Category: Physics Tags: Electromagn Biol Med Source Type: research
Authors: Opel N, Cearns M, Clark S, Toben C, Grotegerd D, Heindel W, Kugel H, Teuber A, Minnerup H, Berger K, Dannlowski U, Baune BT Abstract Background: Preliminary research suggests that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with structural alterations in the brain; as well as with low-grade peripheral inflammation. However, even though a link between inflammatory processes and altered brain structural integrity has been purported by experimental research, well-powered studies to confirm this hypothesis in patients with MDD have been lacking. We aimed to investigate the potential association between struc...
Source: Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Psychiatry Neurosci Source Type: research
Authors: Johansson V, Erhardt S, Engberg G, Kegel M, Bhat M, Schwieler L, Blennow K, Zetterberg H, Cannon TD, Wetterberg L, Hultman CM, Landén M Abstract Preclinical studies indicate a link between the kynurenine pathway and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), but there is a lack of clinical studies examining this further. We here perform a secondary analysis of kynurenine metabolites and MCP-1 in cerebrospinal fluid of 23 twins affected from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or unaffected. We show an association between MCP-1 and kynurenic acid (KYNA), driven by unique environmental influences and a l...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research
Authors: Barton BB, Zagler A, Engl K, Rihs L, Musil R Abstract The information on prevalence of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risk (CVR) and on sociodemographic variables available in patients with psychiatric diseases about to be treated with weight gain-associated medication (e.g., clozapine, mirtazapine, quetiapine) is limited. In a naturalistic study, psychiatric inpatients (age: 18-75) of all F diagnoses according to ICD-10, who were about to be treated with weight gain-associated medication, were included. Demographic variables were assessed as well as biological parameters t...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: CES-D is a valid and reliable scale for detecting caregiver depression in dementia. It has added utility, beyond that of a caregiver burden scale, in identifying a subgroup of caregivers with depression but not burden. However, two subscales (Positive affect and Interpersonal problems) may require caution in interpretation among non-Caucasian caregivers. PMID: 31307034 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord Source Type: research
We report a nanoclay-based radiofluorogenic gel (NC-RFG) dosimeter employing dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR 123), which avoids the main drawbacks of conventional RFG, namely, diffusion of the radiation products, dose rate dependence, and oxygen effects in radiation-induced reactions. The dose responses of the NC-RFG employing DHR 123 under X-ray irradiation were evaluated using a fluorescence spectrometer and 2D fluorescence gel scanner. The results show high linearity within the range 0–5 Gy, and the sensitivity was maintained by increasing the post-irradiation time to 37 days and the dose rate from 3.0 to 10.4&th...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - Category: Physics Source Type: research
This study elucidates a gamma irradiation-reduction approach in producing small gadolinium nanoparticles specifically gadolinium oxide nanoparticles coated with chitosan (GdNPs-Cs). Chitosan was used as a natural stabilizer and coating agent, whereas gadolinium (III) chloride hexahydrate (GdCl3.6H2O) was used as a precursor. The gadolinium nanoparticle was synthesized via hydrothermal method prior to chitosan coating and gamma irradiation. The properties of the synthesized GdNPs-Cs were studied in term of molecular conformation, surface plasmon resonance and particle distribution via ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy ...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - Category: Physics Source Type: research
We demonstrate a tethered motorized capsule for unobstructed optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the esophagus. By using a distal reflector design, we avoided the common shadow artifact induced by the motor wires. A synchronous driving technique features three types of beam-scanning modes ...
Source: Optics Letters - Category: Physics Authors: Source Type: research
In this work, laser absorption imaging is expanded in temporal resolution capability to kilohertz measurement rates by coupling sparsely sampled wavelength scanning and digital image postprocessing for diffraction correction. The setup employs an interband cascade laser near 3.34   μ m ...
Source: Applied Optics - Category: Physics Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Oon-Arom A, Wongpakaran T, Satthapisit S, Saisavoey N, Kuntawong P, Wongpakaran N Abstract Attachment styles reflect interpersonal relationship patterns in many ways. Although there is increasing evidence regarding the relationship between attachment styles and suicidality in adults, few studies have been conducted among the elderly population. Present study aims to investigate the link between attachment style and risk of suicidality in elderly people. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data among geriatric outpatients at psychiatric clinics in xxxx with respect to whether patients had depressive dis...
Source: Asian Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Asian J Psychiatr Source Type: research
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