Is the Brain a Key Player in Glucose Regulation and Development of Type 2 Diabetes?

Conclusion Taken together, evidence from animal and human studies demonstrates that the brain detects levels of circulating nutrients and hormones and consequently organizes an outward response that contributes to the regulation of whole-body glucose homeostasis. However, there are major knowledge gaps about the exact nature of this response and its relative importance compared to peripheral processes. As we have seen, animal studies have provided an anatomical map of CNS glucose regulation and have identified important neurons and neural circuits involved. Additionally, the CNS sensing of key nutrients and hormones has been characterized in detail and the intracellular signaling pathways have been outlined for most of them. Studies of humans entail inherent methodological challenges compared to animal studies that may explain the inconsistent findings in some areas. There are some intriguing epidemiological relationships between CNS and metabolic disorders and dysregulation of the ANS or HPA axis have both been proposed as the mediators of this connection. Attempts to demonstrate this have yielded somewhat discordant findings, however. The extra-pancreatic effects of diazoxide and GLP-1 may very well be extra-cerebral as well and the favorable effect of intranasal oxytocin on glucose metabolism is interesting but not necessarily secondary to actions in the CNS. The use of somatostatin and octreotide in some studies to inhibit pancreatic hormone secretion may possibly indu...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: In hypertensive and diabetic patients, higher OPG values were associated with impaired LA function assessed by 2D-STE. In this high-risk patient group, serum OPG can be used as a risk predictor for LA mechanical dysfunction. PMID: 32462219 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Herz - Category: Cardiology Tags: Herz Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2020Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and ProteomicsAuthor(s): Khushdeep Bandesh, Dwaipayan Bharadwaj
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Proteins and Proteomics - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
To quantitate left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and correlate it with inflammation, insulin resistance (IR) and serum androgen levels among nonobese normotensive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Source: Fertility and Sterility - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Original article Source Type: research
To study whether patients exhibiting poor ovarian response have abnormal levels of serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 on cycle day 2 when compared with age-matched normal and high responders.
Source: Fertility and Sterility - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Original article Source Type: research
This article focuses on policy and law concerning violence against women as a public health issue. In Sweden, violence against women is recently recognized as a public health problem; we label this shift "The public health turn on violence against women". ...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Jurisprudence, Laws, Legislation, Policies, Rules Source Type: news
This editorial discusses, from an interdisciplinary legal-anthropological perspective, the essay "Medical assistance in dying: just an ethical or legal issue?" by Gristina et al. Starting from a review of the epidemiological data, the authors propose to co...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Jurisprudence, Laws, Legislation, Policies, Rules Source Type: news
When individuals do not conform to stereotypes associated with "male" or "female," they are often ridiculed, bullied, and rejected, which leads to depression, psychological problems, and even suicide. The number of individuals who identify themselves as tr...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Research Methods, Surveillance and Codes, Models Source Type: news
OBJECTIVE: Suicide is one of the most pressing problems worldwide, one of the main social challenges. In Spain, suicide mortality is the leading cause of external death, maintaining the suicide rate relatively stable or even increasing in some age groups i...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Research Methods, Surveillance and Codes, Models Source Type: news
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to develop a Polish adaptation of the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) by A. Osman et al. The questionnaire is a self-descriptive measure of suicidal tendencies (suicidal behaviors, including ideation and...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Research Methods, Surveillance and Codes, Models Source Type: news
Despite its frequency in Mexico, research on migrant kidnapping is scant. We estimate that up to 250,000 migrants may have been kidnapped between 2006 and 2018. Even less is known about women as perpetrators in kidnapping operations. Moreover, in Mexico, r...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Risk Factor Prevalence, Injury Occurrence Source Type: news
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