A Post-hoc Study of D-Amino Acid Oxidase in Blood as an Indicator of Post-stroke Dementia

In conclusion, our data support that plasma DAO levels were increased in PSD patients and correlated with brain WMH, independent of age, gender, hypertension, and renal function. Plasma DAO levels may therefore aid in PSD diagnosis. Introduction Stroke is a risk factor for both vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease (1, 2). Functional recovery develops over the course of 26 weeks after a stroke (3), but the survivors are often left with disabilities. In addition to the sequelae of acute neuronal damage, the 1-year post-stroke dementia (PSD) rates after first-ever and recurrent stroke are ~10 and 30%, respectively (4). Although there is a high risk of PSD in chronic stroke patients, no effective biomarker has been established for PSD (5). Limited studies have indicated that PSD involves secondary degeneration (6), including neuronal death, axonal degeneration, inflammation, and gliosis (7, 8). These secondary neurodegenerative changes result in Wallerian degeneration (9), cortical atrophy (9), white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) (9–11), or lacunes (9–11), and have been used as neuroimaging biomarkers for vascular brain injury (12) and cognitive impairment (13). The value of these indicators in predicting PSD is, however, still uncertain (11). A few blood biomarkers [e.g., β-secretase (14), homocysteine (15), and inflammation markers (16–18)] for predicting PSD have been examined. However, the use of these biomarkers for clinical PSD pat...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Irreversible T cell exhaustion limits the efficacy of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) blockade. We observed that dual CD40-TLR4 stimulation within a single tumor restored PD-1 sensitivity and that this regimen triggered a systemic tumor-specific CD8+ T cell response. This approach effectively treated established tumors in diverse syngeneic cancer models, and the systemic effect was dependent on the injected tumor, indicating that treated tumors were converted into necessary components of this therapy. Strikingly, this approach was associated with the absence of exhausted PD-1hi T cells in treated and distant tumors, while s...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Skin and intestinal epithelial barriers play a pivotal role in protecting underlying tissues from harsh external environments. The protective role of these epithelia is, in part, dependent on a remarkable capacity to restore barrier function and tissue homeostasis after injury. In response to damage, epithelial wounds repair by a series of events that integrate epithelial responses with those of resident and infiltrating immune cells including neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. Compromise of this complex interplay predisposes to development of chronic nonhealing wounds, contributing to morbidity and mortality of many d...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Fibroblasts from patients with Tangier disease carrying ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) loss-of-function mutations are characterized by cardiolipin accumulation, a mitochondrial-specific phospholipid. Suppression of ABCA1 expression occurs in glomeruli from patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and in human podocytes exposed to DKD sera collected prior to the development of DKD. We demonstrated that siRNA ABCA1 knockdown in podocytes led to reduced oxygen consumption capabilities associated with alterations in the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes and with cardiolipin accumulation. Podocyte-specific deleti...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Immune cells are pivotal in the reaction to injury, whereupon, under ideal conditions, repair and resolution phases restore homeostasis following initial acute inflammation. Immune cell activation and reprogramming require transcriptional changes that can only be initiated if epigenetic alterations occur. Recently, accelerated deciphering of epigenetic mechanisms has extended knowledge of epigenetic regulation, including long-distance chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications, and involvement of small and long noncoding RNAs. Epigenetic changes have been linked to aspects of immune cell...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
pidemiologists focus on possible health effects of synthetic compounds known as 'forever chemicals' More at https://www.nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=298915&WT.mc_id=USNSF_1 This is a Research News item.
Source: NSF Discoveries - Category: Science Source Type: research
Active surveillance (AS) has been widely accepted as a first-line management approach in men with low-risk prostate cancer. While AS provides an avenue to reduce risk of overtreatment without compromising oncological safety, there remains a lack of consensus on the optimal approach to monitoring. An ideal surveillance strategy would be one that minimizes invasive testing such as prostate biopsy without conceding adverse oncologic outcomes. Thus, several studies have sought to identify men at higher risk of reclassification so as to more carefully select when biopsy is truly necessary.
Source: Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research
In “National trends in the utilization of androgen deprivation therapy for very low risk prostate cancer,” the authors demonstrate a significant decline in the use of primary androgen deprivation (pADT), for very low risk prostate cancer. By 2015, only 1.7% of men in this population received pADT, representing a furthering of trends witnessed in the early 21st century, and which have been previously described.1,2
Source: Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research
We thank the authors of this editorial for their very thoughtful comments. They are correct that the use of low dose CT (LDCT) scan can significantly reduce the radiation dose associated with kidney stone management. The sensitivity of LDCT for nephrolithiasis is well-established and comparable to that of standard dose CT scan (SDCT), especially in nonobese patients.1 Unfortunately, while the technology is available, limited evidence exists that widespread adoption of LDCT has occurred, especially in the emergency department setting where a significant percentage of imaging for nephrolithiasis is performed.
Source: Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research
Hi everyone I failed a course by a single question (0.2%) and as a result I have to take a Remediation Exam. The exam is on our Fundamentals Course which is all of the basics sciences. It is 2 days away and I am starting to panic. It is on all of Immuno, all of BioChem, all Anatomy, all Micro, Anti-biotics, Anti-cancers, Anti-fungals, Fundamentals of Pathology, Infectious Disease and pretty much anything you can think of. I have been studying for a month but I feel like I just cant... Remediation Exam
Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Medical Students - MD Source Type: forums
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