From the Incretin Concept and the Discovery of GLP-1 to Today's Diabetes Therapy

From the Incretin Concept and the Discovery of GLP-1 to Today's Diabetes Therapy Jens Juul Holst* Department of Biomedical Sciences, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Researchers have been looking for insulin-stimulating factors for more than 100 years, and in the 1960ties it was definitively proven that the gastrointestinal tract releases important insulinotropic factors upon oral glucose intake, so-called incretin hormones. The first significant factor identified was the duodenal glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, GIP, which however, turned out not to stimulate insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. But resection experiments clearly indicated the presence of an additional incretin, and in 1986, an unexpected processing fragment of the recently identified glucagon precursor, proglucagon, namely truncated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 7–36 amide), was isolated from the gut and found to both stimulate insulin secretion and inhibit glucagon secretion. The peptide also inhibited appetite and food intake. Unlike GIP, this peptide had preserved effects in patients with type 2 diabetes and it was soon documented to have powerful antidiabetic effects in clinical studies. Its utility was limited, however, because of an extremely short half-life in humans, but this problem had two solutions, both of which gave rise to important antidiabetic drugs: (1) orally active ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Authors: Musio F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Anemia has and will continue to be a central theme in medicine particularly as clinicians are treating a burgeoning population of complex multi-organ system processes. As a result of multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs), meta-analyses, and societal recommendations overly restrictive paradigms and under-administration of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) have likely been followed by clinicians among all specialties. AREAS COVERED: A review of anemia in the context of chronic kidney disease, hematologic malignancies and cancer is presented with focus on the e...
Source: Expert Review of Hematology - Category: Hematology Tags: Expert Rev Hematol Source Type: research
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Source: Blood Pressure - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Press Source Type: research
Authors: Zhang W, Xu JZ, Lu XH, Li H, Wang D, Wang JG Abstract PURPOSE: We hypothesise that dietary sodium intake interacts with serum uric acid to influence blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents. In the present study, we investigated ambulatory BP in relation to hyperuricaemia, dietary sodium intake and their interaction in children and adolescents with hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  A total of 616 study participants were 10-24 years old and had primary hypertension diagnosed after admission in a specialised inpatient ward. Ambulatory BP monitoring was performed during hospitalisat...
Source: Blood Pressure - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Press Source Type: research
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Source: Food and Nutrition Research - Category: Nutrition Authors: Tags: Food Nutr Res Source Type: research
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Source: Urology Case Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
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Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
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Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
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