From the Incretin Concept and the Discovery of GLP-1 to Today's Diabetes Therapy

From the Incretin Concept and the Discovery of GLP-1 to Today's Diabetes Therapy Jens Juul Holst* Department of Biomedical Sciences, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Researchers have been looking for insulin-stimulating factors for more than 100 years, and in the 1960ties it was definitively proven that the gastrointestinal tract releases important insulinotropic factors upon oral glucose intake, so-called incretin hormones. The first significant factor identified was the duodenal glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, GIP, which however, turned out not to stimulate insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. But resection experiments clearly indicated the presence of an additional incretin, and in 1986, an unexpected processing fragment of the recently identified glucagon precursor, proglucagon, namely truncated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 7–36 amide), was isolated from the gut and found to both stimulate insulin secretion and inhibit glucagon secretion. The peptide also inhibited appetite and food intake. Unlike GIP, this peptide had preserved effects in patients with type 2 diabetes and it was soon documented to have powerful antidiabetic effects in clinical studies. Its utility was limited, however, because of an extremely short half-life in humans, but this problem had two solutions, both of which gave rise to important antidiabetic drugs: (1) orally active ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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ConclusionsThis case series demonstrates that the use of a high frequency jet ventilator for cardiac MRI was feasible, safe, providing good quality cardiac imaging and avoiding anesthesia personnel to be inside the hazardous environment of MRI room. Future studies are needed to confirm its safety and efficiency in pediatric patients.ResumoJustificativa e objetivosA ressonância magnética (RM) cardíaca é uma técnica utilizada na avaliação de crianças com cardiopatias congênitas. A anestesia geral garante imobilidade, especialmente em pacientes não cooperador...
Source: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, this review reported that IL-37 has a crucial role in reducing infection-associated inflammation and has a good impact on inflammation-induced pathology. However, tight regulation that achieved balance between effector immune responses that required for pathogen elimination and limited tissue damage that resulted from excessive inflammation should be existed in the potential IL-37 therapy to prevent clinical complications of a disease. PMID: 31633447 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research
Date: Monday, 10 28, 2019; Speaker: Xiangbo Ruan, Regulation of systemic lipid metabolism by human lncRNAs, The Cao group, CB, NHLBI; Ranganath Muniyappa, Hyperuricemia in insulin resistance, DEOB, NIDDK; Building: Building 10 (Clinical Center); Solarium Conference Room 9S233 (old Bunim Room)
Source: NIH Calendar of Events - Category: American Health Source Type: events
Date: Tuesday, 11 12, 2019; Speaker: Meira Epplein, PhD, Associate Professor in Population Health Sciences, Associate Prof in Medicine, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine ; http://epi.grants.cancer.gov/events/infectious-age
Source: NIH Calendar of Events - Category: American Health Source Type: events
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Autoimmunity ReviewsAuthor(s): Daniel Blockmans, Raashid Luqmani, Lucia Spaggiari, Carlo SalvaraniAbstractWith advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of large vessel vasculitides, we recognise the persistence of inflammation in large vessels, sometimes despite therapy to control clinical symptoms. Achieving an early diagnosis and establishing the extent of disease are important steps in improving our management of these diseases. Imaging is playing an increasing role in the assessment of these patients from diagnosis to prognosis. We review the current an...
Source: Autoimmunity Reviews - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion: The relative proportion of IPUD is increasing in our population in contrast to the drop of H. pylori-PUD. Treatment with high-dose PPI, and for a long duration, heals IPUD and protects from recurrence. PMID: 31630582 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Conclusions: Patients with clinical signs of inflammation and acute PVT have a low risk of malignancy in contrast to patients without signs of inflammation and acute PVT, which have a high risk of oncologic or hemato-oncologic disease. Patients with negative hemato-oncologic screening should be carefully observed over time because we expect they are at higher risk for the development of hemato-oncologic disease, independent from the presence and number of procoagulation risk factors. PMID: 31630579 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Conclusions: The results indicate that a possible mechanism behind an anastomotic leakage is an impaired circulation and thus insufficient saturation to the small intestine peroperatively. This develops into an inflammation both intraperitoneally and intravenously, which, if not reversed, spread within the gastrointestinal tract .The colorectal anastomosis is the most vulnerable part of the gastrointestinal tract postoperatively and hypoxia and inflammation may occur there, and an anastomosis leakage will be the consequence. PMID: 31630578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
ConclusionRRA must be initiated within 58 days after surgery in patients with high-risk DTCs. Under this approach, risk of SIR and associated mortality risk may be reduced. RRA timing for women in reproductive ages with low/intermediate risk groups may be planned according to their pregnancy/breastfeeding intent. For other low/intermediate risk groups, they can safely proceed according to the capacity of the medical facility and related logistical considerations.ResumenIntroducciónEs difícil adoptar un enfoque científico basado en la evidencia con respecto al intervalo de aplicación de la ablaci...
Source: Revista Espanola de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research
This article highlights the role of nuclear medicine in standardizing the diagnostic approach in patients with infectious/inflammatory diseases, in particular in peripheral osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, prosthetic joint infections, infected diabetic foot and spinal infections. The authors reveal the role of the most common radionuclides tests, with their advantages and clinical indications, to achieve an adequate diagnosis of infection and inflammation.ResumenLas enfermedades inflamatorias e infecciosas osteoarticulares pueden tener graves consecuencias para el paciente si no se diagnostican a tiempo. En las últi...
Source: Revista Espanola de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research
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