From the Incretin Concept and the Discovery of GLP-1 to Today's Diabetes Therapy
From the Incretin Concept and the Discovery of GLP-1 to Today's Diabetes Therapy Jens Juul Holst* Department of Biomedical Sciences, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Researchers have been looking for insulin-stimulating factors for more than 100 years, and in the 1960ties it was definitively proven that the gastrointestinal tract releases important insulinotropic factors upon oral glucose intake, so-called incretin hormones. The first significant factor identified was the duodenal glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, GIP, which however, turned out not to stimulate insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. But resection experiments clearly indicated the presence of an additional incretin, and in 1986, an unexpected processing fragment of the recently identified glucagon precursor, proglucagon, namely truncated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 7–36 amide), was isolated from the gut and found to both stimulate insulin secretion and inhibit glucagon secretion. The peptide also inhibited appetite and food intake. Unlike GIP, this peptide had preserved effects in patients with type 2 diabetes and it was soon documented to have powerful antidiabetic effects in clinical studies. Its utility was limited, however, because of an extremely short half-life in humans, but this problem had two solutions, both of which gave rise to important antidiabetic drugs: (1) orally active ...
Weight-bearing CT scans can provide new insight into foot and ankle disorders and valuable information for surgical planning.Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Vaccines protecting against influenza, hepatitis B and rabies are less effective for obese people. As scientists develop a Covid-19 vaccine, experts say obesity could be an impediment, a sobering prospect for the US, where nearly half of all adults are obese.
SUPPLEMENTS could be used to improve the health of your heart, as well as to protect against high blood pressure symptoms and signs. Add these cheap garlic capsules to your diet to lower your risk of heart problems, including heart attacks and heart disease.
Those suffering from cancer, heart conditions, strokes, diabetes and lung disease are among the worst affected by delays to their diagnosis and care, a survey of senior doctors reveals.
DIABETES type 2 symptoms may include feeling unusually tired, passing more urine than normal, and having cuts or wounds that take longer to heal than expected. But, you could also be at risk of high blood sugar if you notice a change to the appearance of your stools. What does your poo look like?
CONCLUSION: Anti-NMO assays, made available during the last five years with the help of The Guthy-Jackson Charitable Foundation, have led to a clear jump in the number of cases diagnosed. Major advances in the field of epidemiology, imaging, and pathophysiology of NMO-SD have led to improved patient care and outcome. PMID: 32741562 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
HIGH blood pressure is a largely symptomless silent killer. If a person ignores their blood pressure because they think a certain symptom will alert them to the problem, they are taking a dangerous chance with their life. There are two waring signs which lay in a person's face.
The objective of this study was to report the incidence of alopecia arising in patients treated with vismodegib, assessing its characteristics, grade of severity, and time of onset.Skin Appendage Disord
CONCLUSIONS: The rate of rPTH increased from 1991 to 2012 in hospitals and in private ORL office settings alike. There was a significantly higher rate of rPTH in the age group of 20-40 years and a significant geographical difference in rPTH. The highest risk of rPTH was observed on the day of surgery and on day six. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Danish Data Protection Agency (record number 2012-41-0158) approved this study. FUNDING: The Olga Bryde Nielsen Foundation and H. Skouby &E. Skouby's Foundation supported this study financially. PMID: 32741442 [PubMed - in process]
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis estimated a high prevalence of SS, SAN and MMN injuries following the three main types of ND. If oncological considerations allow it, the less morbid ND should be considered. MMN injuries have only been reported in a limited number of small studies. The results may be used to compare future research and as guidance for quality evaluation within departments. PMID: 32741441 [PubMed - in process]
More News: Bile | Biology | Brain | Brain Cancers | Byetta | Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Carbohydrates | Cardiology | Cardiovascular | Chemistry | Clinical Trials | Cytology | Databases & Libraries | Denmark Health | Depression | Diabetes | Diabetes Mellitus | Diabetes Type 1 | Diabetes Type 2 | Eating Disorders & Weight Management | Endocrinology | Fortamet | Gastric (Stomach) Cancer | Gastric Bypass | Gastroenterology | Genetics | Germany Health | Heart | Heart Disease | Heart Transplant | Hormones | Hypertension | Incretin Therapy | Insulin | Kidney Transplant | Kidney Transplantation | Laboratory Medicine | Levemir | Liver | Liver Transplant | Mad Cow Disease | Men | Metformin | Molecular Biology | Neurology | Neuroscience | Nutrition | Obesity | Oral Cancer | Pancreas | Pancreatitis | Parenteral Nutrition | PET Scan | Science | Study | Thyroid | Thyroid Cancer | Transplants | Urology & Nephrology | Victoza | Weight Loss