Pattern Recognition by Melanoma Differentiation-Associated Gene 5 (Mda5) in Teleost Fish: A Review

Pattern Recognition by Melanoma Differentiation-Associated Gene 5 (Mda5) in Teleost Fish: A Review Jassy Mary S. Lazarte1, Kim D. Thompson2 and Tae Sung Jung1* 1Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, South Korea 2Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Penicuik, United Kingdom Teleost fish, as with other vertebrates, rely on their innate immune system as a first line of defense against invading pathogens. A very important characteristic of the innate immune response is its ability to recognize conserved molecular structures, such as viral dsRNA and ssRNA. Mda5 is one of the three pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize cytoplasmic viral ligands. Teleost Mda5 is widely conserved among several fish species and possesses the same structural domains as those seen in their mammalian counterparts. Fish Mda5 has been shown to be capable of initiating an inflammatory response both in vitro (in different fish cell lines) and in vivo using synthetic viral analogs or virus. The interferon (IFN) pathway is triggered as a result of Mda5 activation, leading to the expression of type I IFNs, IFN- stimulated genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although it is known that Mda5 acts as a receptor for virally-produced ligands, it has been shown more recently that it can also initiate an immune response against bacterial challenges. This review discusses recent advances in the characterizatio...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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