Pattern Recognition by Melanoma Differentiation-Associated Gene 5 (Mda5) in Teleost Fish: A Review
Pattern Recognition by Melanoma Differentiation-Associated Gene 5 (Mda5) in Teleost Fish: A Review Jassy Mary S. Lazarte1, Kim D. Thompson2 and Tae Sung Jung1* 1Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, South Korea 2Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Penicuik, United Kingdom Teleost fish, as with other vertebrates, rely on their innate immune system as a first line of defense against invading pathogens. A very important characteristic of the innate immune response is its ability to recognize conserved molecular structures, such as viral dsRNA and ssRNA. Mda5 is one of the three pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize cytoplasmic viral ligands. Teleost Mda5 is widely conserved among several fish species and possesses the same structural domains as those seen in their mammalian counterparts. Fish Mda5 has been shown to be capable of initiating an inflammatory response both in vitro (in different fish cell lines) and in vivo using synthetic viral analogs or virus. The interferon (IFN) pathway is triggered as a result of Mda5 activation, leading to the expression of type I IFNs, IFN- stimulated genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although it is known that Mda5 acts as a receptor for virally-produced ligands, it has been shown more recently that it can also initiate an immune response against bacterial challenges. This review discusses recent advances in the characterizatio...
Travel links to city shut down in bid to curb worst viral outbreak since Sars in 2003
This study compares the performances of three SF PPP models, namely the GRoup and PHase Ionospheric Correction (GRAPHIC) model, GRAPHIC with code observation model, and an ionosphere-constrained model, and evaluated the contribution of the QZSS to the SF PPP of GPS/BDS/GLONASS/Galileo systems. Moreover, the influence of code bias on the SF PPP of the BDS system is also analyzed. A two-week dataset (DOY 013–026, 2019) from 10 stations of the MGEX network is selected for validation, and the results show that: (1) For cut-off elevation angles of 15, 20, and 25°, the convergence times for the static SF PPP of GLONASS...
We report that IMF clock angle at low latitude does not have influence on Pc4 occurrence. Based on the characteristics of these events, detected in latitudinally distributed stations from low and mid-latitudes from northern and southern hemisphere, we infer that modes were compressional, which could be driven by K-H instability or solar wind dynamic pressure, as compressional modes can propagate to low latitude with little attenuation.
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Zhenghai Wang, Cong Zhou, Haoyang QinAbstractAdvanced space-borne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) data were evaluated for the hydrothermal alteration mapping of the Nimu porphyry copper deposit, southern Tibet. According to the metallogenic model for porphyry copper, we chose hydrothermal alteration mineral association and then established a remote sensing model. Relative absorption-band depth (RBD) and simple band combination methods in visible near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands were used...
An outbreak of new coronavirus in China has sickened more than 500 people and killed at least a dozen, while spreading to countries around the world.
Snakes -- the Chinese krait and the Chinese cobra -- may be the original source of the newly discovered coronavirus that has triggered an outbreak of a deadly infectious respiratory illness in China this winter.
AbstractThis is a letter to the Editor concerning the recently published article by Zerem et al. The paper described a 12yo female with multisystem mitochondrial disorder (MID) due to the compound heterozygous variants c.1963_1964dupAT and p.Ile382Met inOPA1 manifesting phenotypically with congenital nystagmus, developmental delay, visual impairment, gait ataxia, epilepsy, a stroke-like episode (SLE) with encephalopathy and vomiting, and hearing impairment. This interesting case could be more meaningful by providing more information about the treatment of the SLE/stroke-like lesion (SLL), about the morphological characteri...
In conclusion, these results indicated that SXD produced beneficial sedative and hypnotic bioactivities mediated by regulating the serotonergic and immune system.
At least 17 people have died from the mystery illness. The sudden uptick in deaths prompted the authorities to ban most forms of travel from Wuhan, China, the epicenter of the outbreak, ahead of the biggest travel day of the year.
Wuhan, which has a population of 11 million, is being quarantined, with authorities shutting down outbound flights and trains, ordering citizens not to leave except in the case of special circumstances.
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