Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Lung Transplantation

In conclusion, circulating MDSCs are measurable, functional and have a G-MDSC phenotype in lung transplant patients. Their frequency is increased in stable patients, decreased during post-transplant complications, and related to level of immunosuppression. This study may pave the way for further investigations of MDSC in the context of lung transplantation. Introduction From a transplant immunological point of view, graft acceptance is the fundamental element in allograft survival. Graft acceptance is realized by blocking the immune system with immunosuppression preventing host immune cells to recognized and attack the “non-self” donor (lung) tissue. Immune regulatory cells are thought to play a major role in the balance between graft acceptance and chronic rejection. Most attention has gone to natural and inducible FoxP3 positive regulatory T cells (Treg) (1). Immune regulation and graft acceptance, however, encompasses many more cells including regulatory B cells, regulatory dendritic cells and innate regulatory cells like the myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which were introduced 10 years ago by Gabrilovich et al., MDSCs were initially described as a heterogeneous group of immune cells from the myeloid lineage with a potent immune-regulatory activity (2). In the last few years, more insights into the nature and biological role of MDSCs have been reported and consequently MDSCs have emerged as a universal regulator of immune function in many pat...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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We report the case of a 37-year-old female patient, without past medical history, with multicystic lung disease in a context of chronic abdominal pain, fatigue and weight loss. After several months of diagnostic delay, pathological examination of surgical lung biopsies led to the diagnosis of secondary deposits of pancreatic cancer. The clinical and radiogical situation deteriorated quickly with the development of alveolar consolidation and Aspergillus superinfection was then diagnosed. This case illustrates the value of an early decision to undertake surgical lung biopsy in the work-up of multicystic lung disease when can...
Source: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Rev Mal Respir Source Type: research
Study finds increased 15-year risk of ESRD in older kidney donors with hypertension compared to those without. Experts stress absolute risk of ESRD was small and should not prevent donation.Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Transplantation Headlines - Category: Transplant Surgery Tags: Cardiology News Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 25 June 2019Source: Biosensors and BioelectronicsAuthor(s): Yuling Chen, Xin Sun, Sudip Biswas, Yao Xie, Yang Wang, Xiaoya HuAbstractPorphyrinic Metal-Organic Frameworks (porph-MOFs) are attracting attention due to the redox activity in the porphyrin subunit. Herein, we report the design of a novel core-shell structure hybrid material with a sea-cucumber morphology, namely PMeTh, containing the poly(3-methythiophene) conducting polymer coated on the surface of iron-based porph-MOFs PCN-222(Fe) via in-situ oxidative chemical polymerization. The porous PCN-222(Fe) serves as the electrocatal...
Source: Biosensors and Bioelectronics - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 June 2019Source: MethodsAuthor(s): Tejaswini Mallavarapu, Jie Hao, Youngsoon Kim, Jung Hun Oh, Mingon KangAbstractCancer is a genetic disease comprising multiple subtypes that have distinct molecular characteristics and clinical features. Cancer subtyping helps in improving personalized treatment and making decision, as different cancer subtypes respond differently to the treatment. The increasing availability of cancer related genomic data provides the opportunity to identify molecular subtypes. Several unsupervised machine learning techniques have been applied on molecular data of th...
Source: Methods - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
orreguero D Abstract Our working hypothesis is that a hypoadenosinergic state is a main pathogenetic factor that determines the sensory-motor symptoms and hyperarousal of restless legs syndrome (RLS). We have recently demonstrated that brain iron deficiency (BID) in rodents, a well-accepted animal model of RLS, is associated with a generalized downregulation of adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) in the brain and with hypersensitivity of corticostriatal glutamatergic terminals. Here, we first review the experimental evidence for a pivotal role of adenosine and A1R in the control of striatal glutamatergic transmission and...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research
Abstract Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is not uncommon in children with an estimated prevalence of 2%. There is clear evidence that RLS affects quality of life, sleep, cognition and behavior in children and adults. Although the diagnosis of RLS can be challenging in young children, the International Restless Legs Study Group (IRLSSG) has published guidelines for diagnosis which include description of symptoms in the child's own words. Once the diagnosis is made, treatment options must be explored. It is commonly accepted that non-pharmacological interventions be recommended to all affected families. These include m...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research
Abstract Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis Ekbom Disease (RLS/WED) is a sleep related movement disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move the limbs frequently associated with uncomfortable sensations that usually begin or worsen during inactivity and may be relieved by movement. The pathophysiology of the disorder involves several biological system; in particular, dopaminergic pathway and iron physiology have been extensively studied. Being a chronic condition, long-term treatments are required for an adequate management and strong evidence support the employment of dopamine agonists. D3 receptor agonists ...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research
Abstract The pathophysiology of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) remains uncertain. Although the dopaminergic and/or the iron breakdown homeostasis hypotheses are still considered to be the mainstay of the RLS underlying mechanism, therapeutic intervention aiming to alleviate RLS syndrome through dopamine agonists use and iron stores recovery failed so far to show short-term remarkable efficacy, and controlled trials to establish sustained long-term efficacy, tolerability and safety are lacking. Here we review available literature dealing with pharmacological treatment of RLS and consider some rational aspects of RLS ...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research
Abstract Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder in the United States. This disorder is characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs, although the symptoms vary in a wide range. The pathobiology of RLS has been linked to iron (Fe) deficiency and dopaminergic (DAergic) dysfunction. Several genetic factors have been reported to increase the risk of RLS. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a well-established animal model with a fully sequenced genome, which is highly conserved with mammals. Given the detailed knowledge of its genomic architecture, ease of genetic manipulation and c...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research
Abstract Iron transport to the brain is a critically important and highly regulated process necessary for proper brain function. This review aims to summarize iron uptake mechanisms in the brain and the importance of sex and genotype on this uptake. In restless legs syndrome (RLS), brain iron uptake has been hypothesized to be dysregulated, leading to the clinically observed brain iron deficiency, so this review specifically comments on this disorder. The review covers transferrin-bound transport and the more recently discovered role of ferritin in brain iron delivery. Studies on the impact of sex, MEIS1 (associat...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research
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