Opiates on the brain

NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series Dr. Kieffer is a basic scientist and neurobiologist. She isolated the first gene encoding an opioid receptor, a landmark in neuroscience research to understanding molecular bases of opioid transmission and opioid-mediated mechanisms underlying pain control, mood disorders and addiction. Her team elucidated the role of each opioid receptor in both known and unknown areas of opioid physiology and behaviors using gene knockout in mice. She showed that mu receptors mediate both analgesic and addictive actions of morphine, and are responsible for drug and social reward. Her team discovered that delta receptors have anxiolytic and antidepressant activities, revealing an unanticipated role for delta receptors in mood control. Her team further developed conditional knockout approaches to tackle opioid receptor roles within brain circuits of addiction, demonstrating contrasting roles of mu receptors in drug reward, motivation and aversion processes across addiction circuitry. Recently, her team pioneered cutting-edge neuroimaging of live genetic mouse mutants using fMRI, and established the first ever-reported functional connectivity signature of a receptor gene at whole-brain level. The latter approach opens the way to systems-level understanding of receptor gene and drug effects, and their relation to behavior, and potentially the development of biomarkers translatable to human research.For more information go tohttps://oir.nih.gov/w...
Source: Videocast - All Events - Category: General Medicine Tags: Upcoming Events Source Type: video

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Abstract BACKGROUND: As opioid abuse and addiction have developed into a major national health crisis, prescription of opioids for pain management has become more controversial. However, opioids do help some patients by providing pain relief and improving the quality of life. To better understand the addictive properties of opioids under chronic pain conditions, we used a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to examine the rewarding properties of morphine in rats with persistent nociception. METHODS: Spared nerve injury (SNI) model was used to induce persistent nociception in rats. Nociceptive behavior...
Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Anesth Analg Source Type: research
Opioid abuse has become a critical threat to individuals and communities in the U.S. Unfortunately, physicians and other health care providers may unintentionally be contributing to the epidemic, as prescription opioid use often precedes opioid misuse, abuse, and addiction. Adequate pain management, however, remains an integral component of patient-centered care, particularly for surgical procedures. The purpose of this study is to characterize opioid prescription patterns among Mohs surgeons, to analyze how these practices may vary based on procedural volume, and to compare these practices to those of nonsurgical dermatol...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
Abstract Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is one of the central signal transduction regulators of the cell. Via client interactions with hundreds of proteins, including receptors, receptor regulatory kinases, and downstream signaling regulators, Hsp90 has a crucial and wide-ranging impact on signaling in response to numerous drugs with impacts on resultant physiology and behavior. Despite this importance, however, Hsp90 has barely been studied in the context of pain and the opioid receptor system, leaving open the possibility that Hsp90 could be manipulated to improve pain therapeutic outcomes, a current area of mass...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research
lon A Abstract Dynorphin is a neuropeptide involved in pain, addiction and mood regulation. It exerts its activity by binding to the kappa opioid receptor (KOP) which belongs to the large family of G protein-coupled receptors. The dynorphin peptide was discovered in 1975, while its receptor was cloned in 1993. This review will describe: (a) the activities and physiological functions of dynorphin and its receptor, (b) early structure-activity relationship studies performed before cloning of the receptor (mostly pharmacological and biophysical studies of peptide analogues), (c) structure-activity relationship studie...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research
Background: One in 300 opioid naïve women become addicted to opiates after cesarean birth. After cesarean, women are often prescribed more opiates at discharge than necessary, resulting in increased opportunity for diversion. Purpose: To improve use of comfort strategies and nonopioid medications to decrease the amount of opioids required postoperatively and prescribed at discharge, in women who gave birth via cesarean. Methods: An interdisciplinary workgroup was convened to assess data on opioid use, prescribing practices at discharge, and nurses' use of alternative comfort strategies from January to March 20...
Source: MCN: The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing - Category: Nursing Tags: Feature: CE Connection Source Type: research
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is investigating a growing number of “severe” lung disease cases that appear to be related to vaping. Since late June, according to the CDC, 94 people in 14 states have come down with serious lung illnesses that may be linked to use of e-cigarettes, which heat substances including nicotine and cannabis to create aerosols that users inhale. The case count has grown high enough to prompt the CDC to work with state health departments to learn more about what could be causing the worrisome conditions, which are primarily affecting adolescents. Although “mor...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized onetime public health Source Type: news
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are investigating a growing number of “severe” lung disease cases that appear to be related to vaping. The CDC first announced on Saturday that it would help state health departments investigate a concerning number of serious lung illnesses apparently linked to use of e-cigarettes, which heat substances including nicotine and cannabis to create aerosols that users inhale. At that time, 94 cases in 14 states had been reported—but as of Wednesday, according to a CDC statement, the number had ballooned to 153...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized onetime public health Source Type: news
We describe a case of lormetazepam addiction in a femal...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news
Authors: Koller G, Schwarzer A, Halfter K, Soyka M Abstract Introduction: Opioid addiction is a worldwide disease with a significant impact. A multitude of physical and mental comorbidities are associated with opioid addiction, pain being one of the most relevant. Insufficient pain management may lead to a disruption in medical treatment, self-medication, and subsequent harm to patients. Areas covered: In this review, the authors provide a general overview of opioid addiction. A literature search for pain management and opioid maintenance treatment was conducted. Different settings of acute or chronic pain and situ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
A  letter to the editor in the August 14 New England Journal of Medicine by researchers at the University of Michigan proudly reported on the results of their effort, called the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative (MSQC), to reduce the volume of opioids prescribed for postoperative pain. The Collaborative developed a set of guidelines for its participating prescribers.As a result, they found that from January 2017 through May 2018, the mean number of pills prescribed for postoperative pain decreased from 26 (+/-2) pills pre-guideline to 18 (+/ – 3) pills post-guideline. Patient pill consumption also dec...
Source: Cato-at-liberty - Category: American Health Authors: Source Type: blogs
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