The autonomic nervous system regulates pancreatic beta-cell proliferation in adult male rats.

The autonomic nervous system regulates pancreatic beta-cell proliferation in adult male rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Apr 23;: Authors: Moullé VS, Tremblay C, Castell AL, Vivot K, Ethier M, Fergusson G, Alquier T, Ghislain J, Poitout V Abstract The pancreatic beta-cell responds to changes in the nutrient environment to maintain glucose homeostasis by adapting its function and mass. Nutrients can act directly on the beta-cell and also indirectly through the brain via autonomic nerves innervating islets. Despite the importance of the brain-islet axis in insulin secretion, relatively little is known regarding its involvement in beta-cell proliferation. We previously demonstrated that prolonged infusions of nutrients in rats provoke a dramatic increase in beta-cell proliferation in part due to the direct action of nutrients. Here, we addressed the contribution of the autonomic nervous system. In isolated islets, muscarinic stimulation increased, whereas adrenergic stimulation decreased, glucose-induced beta-cell proliferation. Blocking alpha-adrenergic receptors reversed the effect of epinephrine on glucose + non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA)-induced beta-cell proliferation, whereas activation of beta-adrenergic receptors was without effect. Infusion of glucose + NEFA towards the brain stimulated beta-cell proliferation, and this effect was abrogated following coeliac vagotomy. The increase in beta-cell proliferation following peripheral i...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

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Conclusion SCG, similar to other sympathetic ganglia, show 68Ga-PSMA-11 uptake. SCG avidity may be of significance, especially in view of frequently occurring SCG oval or longitudinal shape, and moderate to high diffusion restriction in visual assessment, potentially suggesting malignancy on transverse MR plane. Diagnostic imaging specialists and clinicians should be aware of the above.
Source: Nuclear Medicine Communications - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Abstract Dipyrone (metamizole), acting through its main metabolites 4-methyl-amino-antipyrine and 4-amino-antipyrine, has established analgesic, antipyretic, and spasmolytic pharmacological effects, which are mediated by poorly known mechanisms. In rats, intravenously administered dipyrone delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquids with the participation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent fibers. This effect seems to be mediated by norepinephrine originating from the sympathetic nervous system but not from the superior celiac-mesenteric ganglion complex, which activates β2-adrenoceptors. In rats, in contrast to non...
Source: Braz J Med Biol Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Braz J Med Biol Res Source Type: research
The diagnosis and follow up of the hyperCKemia in almost all the cases remains a challenge because sometimes they need very invasive studies to finally get into it. To describe patients with hyperckemia and their difference diagnosis. Patients with CK level 1.5 times (at least 2 measurements). We follow up mean to two years. Patients with asymptomatics and oligosymptomatics clinical features. We excluded non neuromuscular disorders (thyroid, celiac disease and pharmacological or drugs). We studied all the patients with muscular dystrophy, electromyography, intermediate metabolism, acid alpha glucosidase, genetics test for ...
Source: Neuromuscular Disorders - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is a dominantly inherited multisystem disorder caused by a CCTG repeat expansion in intron 1 of the CNBP gene on chromosome 3q21.3. DM2 is characterized by progressive proximal muscle weakness, myotonia, early-onset cataract, and multiorgan involvement including cardiac conduction abnormalities, gastrointestinal involvement and endocrine disturbances [1]. Autoimmune diseases are more prevalent (21%) and autoantibodies are more frequently detected (25%) in patients with DM2 compared to patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 and the general population [2].
Source: Neuromuscular Disorders - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Case report Source Type: research
Sinen O Abstract Centrally administered apelin has been shown to inhibit gastric emptying (GE) in rodents, however, the relevant mechanism has been investigated incompletely. Using male Wistar rats, we investigated the efferent pathways involved in gastroinhibitory action of central apelin. Stereotaxic intracerebroventricular (icv) cannulation, subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VGX) and/or celiac ganglionectomy (CGX) were performed 7 days prior to the experiments. Apelin-13 was administered (30 nmol, icv) 90 min prior to GE measurement. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (100 mg/kg), sympatholytic agent guane...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Abstract The present study was designed to determine the distribution, morphology and co-localization of calbindin-D28k (CB) with other neuroactive substances in the coeliac-cranial mesenteric ganglion complex (CCMG) neurons supplying the prepyloric region of the porcine stomach. In all animals, a median laparotomy was performed and the fluorescent retrograde neuronal tracer Fast Blue was injected into the wall of the stomach prepyloric area. On the 28th day, all animals were euthanized and the CCMG complexes were then collected and processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence for CB and tyrosine hydroxylase ...
Source: Tissue and Cell - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Tissue Cell Source Type: research
In conclusion, these results suggest that the nerve–ovarian connections, which are established during infantile development, are necessary for the accurate response of the ovary to sympathetic stimulation.
Source: Reproduction - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
ConclusionOverall, our study demonstrates that DOCA-salt requires an intact sympathetic drive to the spleen for priming of immunity and consequent BP increase. The coupling of nervous system and immune cells activation in the splenic marginal zone is established through a sympathetic-mediated PlGF release, suggesting that this pathway could be a valid therapeutic target for hypertension.
Source: Cardiovascular Research - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Macrophage-dependent impairment of α2-adrenergic autoreceptor function in sympathetic neurons from DOCA-salt but not high fat diet-induced hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2018 Jan 05;: Authors: Mui RK, Fernandes R, Garver H, van Rooijen N, Galligan JJ Abstract DOCA-salt and obesity-related hypertension are associated with inflammation and sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity. Prejunctional α2-adrenergic receptors (α2ARs) provide negative feedback to norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerves through inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels. Increased neuronal no...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol Source Type: research
In conclusion, central chemoreflex activation did not alter the transfer function of the mechanoneural, neuromechanical, or total arcs. Central chemoreflex modifies hemodynamics via sympatho‐excitation without compromising dynamic or static baroreflex AP buffering function. We examine the impact of central chemoreflex activation on baroreflex function. Central chemoreflex activation induces sympatho‐excitation via upward resetting of the baroreflex mechanoneural arc, but does not alter the static or dynamic baroreflex function. Thus, central chemoreflex modifies hemodynamics by sympatho‐excitation without compromisi...
Source: Physiological Reports - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
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