Borrelia burgdorferi bbk13 Is Critical for Spirochete Population Expansion in the Skin during Early Infection Bacterial Infections

Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted via the bite of an infected tick. B. burgdorferi enters the skin, disseminates via the bloodstream, and infects various distal tissues, leading to inflammatory sequelae, such as Lyme arthritis and Lyme carditis. B. burgdorferi linear plasmid 36 (lp36) is critical for mammalian infectivity; however, the full complement of genes on lp36 that contribute to this process remains unknown. Through a targeted mutagenesis screen of the genes on lp36, we identified a novel infectivity gene of unknown function, bbk13, which encodes an immunogenic, non-surface-exposed membrane protein that is important for efficient mammalian infection. Loss of bbk13 resulted in reduced spirochete loads in distal tissues in a mouse model of infection. Through a detailed analysis of B. burgdorferi infection kinetics, we discovered that bbk13 is important for promoting spirochete proliferation in the skin inoculation site. The attenuated ability of bbk13 spirochetes to proliferate in the inoculation site was followed by reduced numbers of B. burgdorferi spirochetes in the bloodstream and, ultimately, consistently reduced spirochete loads in distal tissues. Together, our data indicate that bbk13 contributes to disseminated infection by promoting spirochete proliferation in the early phase of infection in the skin. This work not only increases the understanding of the contribution of the genes on lp36 to B. burgdorferi infection...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Bacterial Infections Source Type: research

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This study presented examples of base-calling DNA sequencing electropherograms routinely generated in a clinical diagnostic laboratory on DNA extracts of human blood specimens and ticks collected from human skin bites and from the environment. Since some of the tick samples tested were collected in Ireland, borrelial species or strains not known to exist in the United States were also detected by analysis of this 16S rRNA “core genome”. We recommend that hospital laboratories located in Lyme disease endemic areas begin to use a “core genome” sequencing test to routinely diagnose spir...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
John R. Caskey1,2†, Nicole R. Hasenkampf1, Dale S. Martin1, Vladimir N. Chouljenko2, Ramesh Subramanian2, Mercedes A. Cheslock1 and Monica E. Embers1* 1Division of Bacteriology and Parasitology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University Health Sciences, Covington, LA, United States 2Division of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, United States Recent studies have shown that Borrelia burgdorferi can form antibiotic-tolerant persisters in the presence of microbiostatic drugs such as doxycycline. Precisely how this...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Publication date: July 2019Source: Biomedicine &Pharmacotherapy, Volume 115Author(s): Hua Zhao, Xiting Dai, Xinlin Han, Aihua Liu, Fukai Bao, Ruolan Bai, Zhenhua Ji, Miaomiao Jian, Zhe Ding, Manzama-Esso Abi, Taigui Chen, Lisha Luo, Mingbiao Ma, Lvyan TaoAbstractLyme disease, reffered to as Lyme borreliosis, is a tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes. Lyme arthritis, the most common, serious and harmful manifestation during the late stages of Lyme disease, is closely associated with the Borrelia burgdorferi basic membrane protein A (BmpA). Chemokines are also reported to have an importa...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Abstract Lyme disease, reffered to as Lyme borreliosis, is a tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes. Lyme arthritis, the most common, serious and harmful manifestation during the late stages of Lyme disease, is closely associated with the Borrelia burgdorferi basic membrane protein A (BmpA). Chemokines are also reported to have an important role in Lyme arthritis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize and bind to pathogen-associated molecules which are structurally conserved among microbes, to activate transcriptional events, including cytokine production, inflammation, and tissue da...
Source: Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine and pharmacotherapie - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biomed Pharmacother Source Type: research
Charlotte Mason1, Xiaoyan Liu2, Spoorthy Prabhudeva1 and Zhiming Ouyang1* 1Department of Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, United States 2Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States BosR, a Fur family member, is essential for the pathogenesis of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi. Unlike typical Fur proteins in which DNA binding represses gene expression, binding of BosR to the rpoS promoter directly activates rpoS transcription in B. burgdorferi. However, virtually nothing is known concerning potential structural fea...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Authors: Feng J, Li T, Yee R, Yuan Y, Bai C, Cai M, Shi W, Embers M, Brayton C, Saeki H, Gabrielson K, Zhang Y Abstract Although most patients with Lyme disease can be cured with a 2-4 week antibiotic therapy, about 10-20% of patients continue to suffer prolonged persistent symptoms, a condition called post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). The cause for PTLDS is unclear and hotly debated. Borrelia burgdorferi develops morphological variants under stress conditions but their significance is not clear. Here we isolated the biofilm-like microcolony (MC) and planktonic (spirochetal form and round body) (SP) var...
Source: Discovery Medicine - Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research
Authors: Weiss T, Zhu P, White H, Posner M, Wickiser JK, Washington MA, Barnhill J Abstract Lyme disease is a continuing threat to military personnel operating in arboriferous and mountainous environments. Here we present the case of a 24-year-old Second Lieutenant, a recent graduate from the United States Military Academy, with a history of Lyme disease who developed recurrent knee effusions following surgery to correct a hip impingement. Although gonococcal arthritis was initially suspected from preliminary laboratory results, a comprehensive evaluation contradicted this diagnosis. Despite antibiotic therapy, asp...
Source: Military Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research
Treatment of Borrelia burgdorferi-Infected Mice with Apoptotic Cells Attenuates Lyme Arthritis via PPAR-γ. J Immunol. 2019 Jan 30;: Authors: Hilliard KA, Brown CR Abstract Infection of mice with Borrelia burgdorferi causes an inflammatory arthritis that peaks 3-4 wk postinfection and then spontaneously resolves. Although the recruitment of neutrophils is known to drive the development of arthritis, mechanisms of disease resolution remain unclear. Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells (AC) is likely an important component of arthritis resolution. In this article, we show the number of AC increas...
Source: Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the mechanisms that lead to the production of proinflammatory mediators by the murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, when these cells are exposed in vitro to recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi basic membrane protein A (rBmpA). Using antibody protein microarray technology with high-throughput detection ability for detecting 25 chemokines in culture supernatant the RAW264.7 cell culture supernatants at 12 and 24 h post-stimulation with rBmpA, we identified two chemokines, a monocyte chemoattractant protein-5 (MCP-5/CCL12) and a macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2/CXCL2), both of which incre...
Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Int J Med Sci Source Type: research
The study compares diagnostic parameters of different commercial serological kits based on three different antigen types and correlates test results with the status of the patient's Borrelia infection. In total, 8 IgM and 8 IgG kits were tested, as follows: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Euroimmun) based on whole-cell antigen, 3 species-specific enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) (TestLine), Liaison chemiluminescence (DiaSorin), ELISA-Viditest (Vidia), EIA, and Blot-Line (TestLine) using recombinant antigens. All tests were performed on a panel of 90 samples from patients with clinically characterized borreliosis (53 w...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Immunoassays Source Type: research
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