Neuroimmunology of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis
Conclusion Recent advances in research on HTLV-1 provide better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis and mechanisms of HAM/TSP, and several clinical trials of novel therapies for patients with HAM/TSP have been initiated. However, long-term improvement of motor disability and quality of life still have not been achieved in HAM/TSP patients, and the clinical management remains challenging. Given that HAM/TSP is characterized by activated T-cells in both the periphery and CNS, studies in HAM/TSP will be highly informative for clarifying the pathogenesis of other neuroinflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Novel approaches will be required to better define host-virus interactions and host immune response underlying the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP. Author Contributions SN wrote the manuscript, and SJ supervised and contributed to the discussion and writing. Funding SN was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science – JSPS-NIH Research Fellowship Program. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. References Abdelbary, N. H., Abdullah, H. M., Matsuzaki, T., Hayashi, D., Tanaka, Y., Takashima, H., et al. (2011). Reduced Tim-3 expression on human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) Tax-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in HTLV-I infection. J. Infect. Dis. 203, 9...
AbstractNodal peripheral T cell lymphomas (nPTCL) present aggressive clinical course, and its heterogeneous nature and poor prognosis with current therapeutic strategies make it a target for the development of new prognostic markers. Thus, we investigated tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) according to the number of cells expressing CD68 in biopsies and the absolute monocyte count (AMC) in peripheral blood of 87 patients with nPTCL. The median overall survival (OS) was 3 years (95% CI 1.3–8.4 years) and estimate 5 years OS of 43.3% (95% CI 32.5–53.7%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) ...
AbstractIncidence and outcome of microbiologically documented bacterial/viral infections and invasive fungal disease (IFD) in children and adults after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) were compared in 650 children and 3200 adults in multicenter cross-sectional nationwide study. Infections were diagnosed in 60.8% children and 35.0% adults, including respectively 69.1% and 63.5% allo-HCT, and 33.1% and 20.8% auto-HCT patients. The incidence of bacterial infections was higher in children (36.0% vs 27.6%;p
By designing a PDA that not only appeals to patients, but also is friendly to physicians, researchers appear to have crossed the threshold of making something that's adoptable, one observer says.Medscape Medical News
Gastric cancer remains one of the most common causes of cancer deaths worldwide. The best current option for reducing gastric cancer deaths is Helicobacter pylori eradication combined with risk assessment and surveillance programs for those deemed to be at high risk for gastric cancer so as to identify lesions at a stage amenable to curative therapy. In this issue, Nam et al1 report a retrospective study of Helicobacter pylori eradication on gastric cancer incidence among 10,328 Korean adults undergoing health checkups including an H pylori test-and-treat program.
We read with great interest the comment by Dr Li and colleagues1 referring to our study on endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) for early colorectal cancer.2 We would like to thank the editors for the opportunity to reply.
Gastric cancer remains one of the most common cancers worldwide and is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality, trailing only lung and colon cancer.1 Given its historically low survival rates, early detection and resection is the most effective strategy to improve prognosis. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), a technique developed in Japan, enables en bloc resection of early gastric cancer (EGC) and can be curative for selected lesions, depending on the histologic features, size, and tumor depth.
We read with interest the article by Emmanuel et al,1 which not only reports the risk factors for recurrence of large laterally spreading tumors after endoscopic resection (ER) but also describes the outcomes of ER of those recurrent adenomas. A Japanese guideline recommends that follow-up colonoscopy should be done within 3 years after ER.2 Bu t this study illustrates that the recurrence rate of adenoma is still as high as 13.5% after 36 months, which means that the follow-up time should be longer.
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