Temperate Prophages Increase Bacterial Adhesin Expression and Virulence in an Experimental Model of Endocarditis Due to Staphylococcus aureus From the CC398 Lineage

This study identified prophages as mediators of bacterial virulence in a model of infectious endocarditis, probably through promotion of interaction with extracellular matrix components. Further studies are needed to identify mechanisms leading to promotion of intrinsic virulence. Introduction Challenges related to Staphylococcus aureus infections in the human and veterinary clinics mobilized important human and technical resources. S. aureus can colonize 20–30% of the general population asymptomatically but is also capable of causing a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from benign infections, to particularly severe diseases such as endocarditis, necrotizing pneumonia, osteomyelitis, or septicemia (Lowy, 1998; Lew and Waldvogel, 2004). In milk-producing ruminants, mastitis caused by S. aureus is the major cause of economic loss worldwide and a major concern in milk transformation (Halasa et al., 2009). The success of S. aureus as a pathogen is explained by its exceptional versatility and also by the plethora of virulence factors it is able to express (Lowy, 1998). Bacterial adhesins, notably, are proteins anchored within bacterial peptidoglycan and exposed to the extracellular medium, allowing interaction with host extracellular matrix proteins (Foster and Hook, 1998). The role of some major staphylococcal adhesins has been described in vitro and in experimental models of infections (McDevitt et al., 1994; Patti et al., 1994; Entenza et al., 2000; Elasri et al....
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
This study includes 47 patients with pathologically proven IGM (Group P) and 26 healthy subjects (Group C). The patients in Group P were divided into two groups according to whether their lesions were active (Group PA, n: 21) or in remission (Group PR, n: 26). By using flow-cytometry, the frequencies of CD3+CD4+CD45RA-Foxp3high activated Tregs (aTregs), CD3+CD4+CD45RA-Foxp3low non-suppressive Tregs, CD3+CD4+CD45RA+Foxp3low resting Tregs (rTregs), CD3+CD4+CD25+Foxp3- T-effector cells (Teff), total Tregs and Bregs were analyzed in all subjects. RESULTS: The frequency of the Teff cells was statistically higher in Group P ...
Source: Immunological Investigations - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunol Invest Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: In this study, no influence of tear substitutes containing different viscosities of hyaluronic acid on the measurement results of optical coherence tomography could be determined. Therefore, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% hyaluronic acid can be applied to the patient to improve the corneal surface before the examination with optical coherence tomography, without influencing the measurement results of optical coherence tomography. PMID: 33036058 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Klin Monbl Augenheilkd Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Cirugía Española (English Edition)Author(s): Victoria Lucas-Guerrero, Mireia Pascua-Solé, José Luis Ramos Rodríguez, Anna Trinidad Borrás, Carlos González de Pedro, José María Jover Navalón, Pere Rebasa, Eduardo M. Targarona Soler, Xavier Serra-Aracil, on behalf of the Comisión Nacional de la Especialidad de Cirugía General y del Aparato Digestivo, de la Sección de Formación de la Asociación Española de Cirujanos
Source: Cirugia Espanola - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Source: European Journal of Sport Science - Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This single practice study showed total patient contact was similar over both sample periods, but most contact in 2020 was virtual. Further longitudinal multi-practice studies to confirm these findings and describe future consultation patterns are needed to inform general practice service delivery post-COVID-19. PMID: 33032304 [PubMed - in process]
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
Curious what people think with pandemic and lack of away rotations.
Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Radiation Oncology Source Type: forums
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: Social Science &MedicineAuthor(s): Paola Bertoli, Veronica Grembi, Catalina Llaneza Hesse, Judit Vall Castelló
Source: Social Science and Medicine - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
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