A Tilted Axis: Maladaptive Inflammation and HPA Axis Dysfunction Contribute to Consequences of TBI

A Tilted Axis: Maladaptive Inflammation and HPA Axis Dysfunction Contribute to Consequences of TBI Zoe M. Tapp, Jonathan P. Godbout and Olga N. Kokiko-Cochran* Department of Neuroscience, Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States Each year approximately 1.7 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the US alone. Associated with these head injuries is a high prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms including irritability, depression, and anxiety. Neuroinflammation, due in part to microglia, can worsen or even cause neuropsychiatric disorders after TBI. For example, mounting evidence demonstrates that microglia become “primed” or hyper-reactive with an exaggerated pro-inflammatory phenotype following multiple immune challenges. Microglial priming occurs after experimental TBI and correlates with the emergence of depressive-like behavior as well as cognitive dysfunction. Critically, immune challenges are various and include illness, aging, and stress. The collective influence of any combination of these immune challenges shapes the neuroimmune environment and the response to TBI. For example, stress reliably induces inflammation and could therefore be a gateway to altered neuropathology and behavioral decline following TBI. Given the increasing incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders after TBI, the degree in which stress affects outcome is of particular inte...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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