Analgesic Effect of Zanthoxylum nitidum Extract in Inflammatory Pain Models Through Targeting of ERK and NF- κB Signaling

Conclusion: The present study suggests that the extract of LMZ attenuates CFA-induced inflammatory pain by suppressing the ERK1/2 and NF-κB signaling pathway at both peripheral and central level. Introduction Pain is one of the most common symptoms in clinical practice, and inflammatory pain is the most important type of pain (Patapoutian et al., 2009). Inflammatory pain is a growing global health problem. In generally, there is a common course of progression in inflammation and pain share. When patients experience inflammation, they may develop hyperalgesia or allodynia to various mechanical, thermal, or chemical stimuli (Sommer et al., 2001; Fongang et al., 2017). Inflammatory pain belongs to the category of chronic pain, which is a persistent pain state caused by peripheral tissue damage mediated by a variety of factors (including trauma, bacterial, viral infection and surgery, etc.,) and is one of the most common types of clinical pain (Milligan et al., 2005). Inflammatory pain diseases often occur simultaneously with other diseases (trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, etc.) and show complex paralgesia and hyperalgesia. CFA is often used in the induction of various chronic inflammatory pain models. The study of peripheral and central mechanisms of inflammatory pain has been focused by the international research (Xu et al., 2010; Atzeni et al., 2018; Rosas et al., 2018). Numerous studies have shown that many peripheral and central nervous structures...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Abstract Medicinal plants are boundless source of raw materials for the pharmaceutical. Identification of natural compounds from medicinal plant is helpful in the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. Tylophora pauciflora is a medicinal plant, which possess many biological activities such as antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity and anti cancer activity. There is no GC-MS analysis reported on this plant. Thus, the present study is aimed to identify the present of phyto-chemical compounds from ethanolic extract of Tylophora pauciflora using GC-MS analysis. Results, the extract possess totally 14 bioacti...
Source: Bioinformation - Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Tags: Bioinformation Source Type: research
We reported 96 hydroxamic compounds optimized using hydrogen-donors, hydrophobic and electron withdrawing groups followed by molecular docking studies. The optimized compounds show good LibDock score and H-bond interaction in the active site of HDAC2. We selected 20 compounds as the best HDAC2 inhibitors based on the LibDock score, binding energy and hydrogen bonding. ADMET predictions on these compounds show good absorption, BBB penetration and no liver toxicity. We subsequently report four compounds selected as best HDAC2 inhibitors based on the LibDock, binding energy, H-bonding and ADMET properties. PMID: 31312074 [PubMed]
Source: Bioinformation - Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Tags: Bioinformation Source Type: research
Abstract Gut microbiota and their metabolites play a vital role in colon health and disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota contributes to the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the role of a specific microbial community together with their metabolites contributing to the risk, initiation and progression of CRC is still unknown. Hence, we used a Bayesian Networks in combination with the IDA (Intervention calculus when the DAG is absent) to generate a graphical model that allows causal relationships to be inferred from observational data. Results from the analysis of publically availa...
Source: Bioinformation - Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Tags: Bioinformation Source Type: research
The objective of this paper is to investigate the detectability of breast tumors having various histological types in excised breast tissues of total mastectomy. The tumor images measured by a portable impulse-radio-ultra-wideband (IR-UWB)-radar-based breast cancer detector are compared with both pathological images and images of dedicated breast positron emission tomography. It is found that the detector can detect invasive-ductal-carcinomas and extensive intraductal component in the dense breast. The density of the breast has a correlation to the effective permittivity derived from the reconstructed confocal images. The ...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
Conclusion: The results suggest that utilizing simple color- and textural-based features from visual inspection with acetic acid and visual inspection with Lugol's iodine images may provide unbiased automation of cervigrams. Significance: This would enable automated, expert-level diagnosis of cervical pre-cancer at the point of care.
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
Abstract A significant obstacle to the study of human cancer biology and the testing of human specific immunotherapeutics is the paucity of translational models that recapitulate both the growth of human tumors and the functionality of human immune systems. Humanized mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and patient-derived xenografts (PDX) enable preclinical investigation of the interactions between the human immune system and human cancer. We use immunodeficient non-obese diabetic (NOD, scid, gamma) NSG™ or NSG™-SGM3 mice as hosts for establishment of human immunity following HSC i...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract Experimental animal tumor models have been broadly used to evaluate anticancer drugs in the preclinical setting. They have also been widely applied for drug target discovery and validation, which usually follows four experimental strategies: first, assess the roles of putative drug targets using in vivo tumorigenicity and tumor growth kinetics assays of transplanted tumors, engineered through gain-of-function (GOF) by overexpressing transgene or knock-in (KI) or loss-of-function by gene silencing using knockdown (KD) or knockout (KO) or mutation via mutagenesis procedures; second, similarly genetically en...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract The high attrition rate of oncology drug candidates can be in part explained by the disconnect between the standard preclinical models (e.g., 2D culture, xenograft tumors) commonly employed for drug discovery and the complex multicellular microenvironment of human cancers. As such, significant focus has recently shifted to the establishment of preclinical models that more closely recapitulate human tumors, such as patient-derived xenografts, 3D spheroids, humanized mice, and mixed-culture models. For these models to be suited to drug discovery, they should optimally exhibit reproducibility, high-throughpu...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract The cross talk between tumor cells and other cells present in the tumor microenvironment such as stromal and immune cells highly influences the behavior and progression of disease. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of interaction is a prerequisite to develop new treatment strategies and to prevent or at least reduce therapy failure in the future. Specific reactivation of the patient's immune system is one of the major goals today. However, standard two-dimensional (2D) cell culture techniques lack the necessary complexity to address related questions. Novel three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models-emb...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract The discovery of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the mammalian brain has raised many expectations as these unique cells might recapitulate different neurological diseases, including brain tumors, both from a functional and molecular perspective. Proper in vitro culturing of NSCs has emerged as a critical methodological issue, given that it should preserve the in vivo features of NSCs, with particular emphasis on cell heterogeneity. At the same time, the methodology for NSC culturing should allow the production of large amounts of cells to be exploited not only for prospective clinical applications but also fo...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
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