P2Y4/TSP-1/TGF- β1/pSmad2/3 pathway contributes to acute generalized seizures induced by kainic acid.
P2Y4/TSP-1/TGF-β1/pSmad2/3 pathway contributes to acute generalized seizures induced by kainic acid. Brain Res Bull. 2019 Apr 18;: Authors: Zhang Y, Zhu W, Yu H, Yu J, Zhang M, Pan X, Gao X, Wang Q, Sun H Abstract Epilepsy is accompanied by angiogenesis and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. The transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/phosphorylated small mothers against decapentaplegic 2 and 3 (pSmad2/3)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, activated by thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), which is further regulated by Y type P2 purinergic receptor activity, may participate in angiogenesis. We sought to investigate the relationship between the P2R/TSP-1/TGF-β1/pSmad2/3/VEGF pathway, angiogenesis, and BBB damage in a kainic acid (KA) model of acute generalized seizure. Our results demonstrated that KA-induced seizures were accompanied by angiogenesis and BBB damage. In addition, expression of TSP-1, TGF-β1, and pSmad2/3 was increased. Rats treated with pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2', 4'-disulfonic acid, a broad P2 receptor antagonist, or Reactive Blue 2, a potent P2Y4 receptor antagonist, showed significant attenuation of TSP-1 expression and Smad2/3 phosphorylation levels. Furthermore, angiogenesis, BBB damage, and acute seizure severity were also reduced. The inhibition of TSP-1 expression by siRNA or TGF-β1 activation by Leu-Ser-Lys-Leu (LSKL) treatment prevented KA-induced phosphorylation of Smad2/3, angiogenesi...
Inducing seizures with cortical stimulation accurately identifies the target area for resection and significantly reduces hospital stays, a new study shows.Medscape Medical News
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ConclusionPhenobarbital and sodium valproate were proven to be efficacious in treating convulsive epilepsy in rural northeast China. The patients’ compliance still needs to be improved.
ConclusionsOur study underscores the importance of an accurate clinical bed-side assessment as the first step in the diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making process for patients presenting with aphasia. The detection of clinical and anamnestic features associated with an epileptic SM could be useful for the diagnostic process and for time-critical treatments.
ConclusionsAngiocentric Glioma is a rare neoplasm mostly present in patients with difficult to control epilepsies. Tumoral resection provides broad control of symptoms, besides reducing recurrence and the progression of the disease, leading to an extremely favorable prognosis.
ConclusionsOur casuistic represents the first Epilepsy Monitoring Unit based case series of SUDEP conducted in Spain. The incidence in our population agrees with the reported in other countries. However, in our population, SUDEP is probably underdiagnosed due to administrative and legal issues.
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: SeizureAuthor(s): Lifang Dai, Changhong Ding, Fang Fang
In conclusion, although CBL did not exert an anticonvulsant effect against secondarily generalized seizures, it can be proposed for use as an add-on therapy in epilepsy management to prevent neuronal alterations, and to improve memory and learning processes.
DiscussionThe use of reference proconvulsive compounds and AEDs validated the electrophysiological parameters to detect proconvulsive risk. Systematic evaluation of compounds with the 3 complementary endpoints increase the probability to detect seizure liability in vitro. Depending on the compound mechanism of action, only one or two of the identified parameters might be modified.
Oddo S, Kochen S Abstract Purpose: Changes in calbindin (CB) expression have been reported in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with controversial implications on hippocampal functions. The aim of this study was to determine the CB immunoreactivity in hippocampal dentate gyrus of patients who underwent epilepsy surgery for drug-resistant TLE with and without comorbid depression and/or memory deficits. Methods: Selected hippocampal samples from patients with TLE who underwent epilepsy surgery were included. Clinical and complementary assessment: EEG, video-EEG, MRI, psychiatric assessment (structured...