Removal of Cell Wall Polysaccharide in Pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharides by Selective Degradation via Deamination

Publication date: Available online 20 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Wei Zou, Jianjun Li, Evguenii Vinogradov, Andrew CoxAbstractPneumococcal cell wall polysaccharide (C-PS), a contaminant in pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (Pn-PS) vaccines is degraded by mild deamination of the 4-amino-2-acetamido-2,4,6-tri-deoxy-galactose (AAT) in C-PS, which was carried out by addition of 5% aqueous sodium nitrite to a solution of polysaccharide in 5% aqueous acetic acid. Glycosidic linkage and functional groups such as O-acetates, phosphodiesters, and pyruvates were preserved under the conditions. The small fragments from degraded C-PS were removed by ultrafiltration or dialysis to provide essentially C-PS free Pn-PS. Because of the presence of AAT in its structure the deamination is not suitable for the purification of type 1 Pn-PS. Meanwhile, the mass and NMR spectroscopic analysis on the deamination products suggests that both type 1 Pn-PS and C-PS degraded following a major pathway of 5,4-hydride shift, cleavage of AAT O5-C1 bond, C1 hemiacetal formation, and its hydrolysis to release neighboring GalA- in type 1 Pn-PS and GalNAc(6-O-PCho)- in C-PS.
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Related Links:

Conclusion: The results suggest that an immunosuppressive state develops at the terminal stage of severe leptospirosis with pulmonary hemorrhage and shock similar to that of patients with septic shock, with diffuse endothelial activation in the spleen, splenitis, and signs of disturbance in the innate and adaptive immunity in the spleen. The presence of leptospiral antigens in 73% of the spleens of the leptospirosis patients suggests the etiological agent contributes directly to the pathogenesis of the lesions. Our results support therapeutic approaches involving antibiotic and immunomodulatory treatments for leptospirosis...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Introduction:Multiple myeloma (MM) is associated with end organ damage that negatively impacts the quality of life (QOL)and supportive care has a potential to improve symptoms.Methods:After detailed search on Pubmed, Cochrane, Embase and Clinical, we finalized total 36 articles on supportive care published after 2004.Results:Management of skeletal events: Mhaskar et al. (2017, n=3257) compared bisphosphonates (BPs) with placebo (PBO) in preventing pathological vertebral fractures, skeletal-related events (SRE), reported risk ratio (RR) of 0.74 in each; 95% CI 0.62-0.89 and 0.63-0.88 respectively. Both zoledronic...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 653. Myeloma: Therapy, excluding Transplantation: Poster I Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Promising trends were observed among members participating in this payer-provider care partnership with respect to both clinical and economic outcomes. This suggests that collaborations with shared incentives may be a valuable approach for patients with ESRD. PMID: 29668211 [PubMed - in process]
Source: The American Journal of Managed Care - Category: Health Management Authors: Tags: Am J Manag Care Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundBecause infections constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric renal allograft recipients, avoidance of preventable systemic infections by vaccination before transplantation is of utmost importance. However, data on the completeness of vaccinations and factors associated with incomplete vaccination coverage are scarce.MethodsWithin the framework of the Cooperative European Paediatric Renal Transplant Initiative (CERTAIN), we therefore performed a multi-centre, multi-national, retrospective study investigating the vaccination coverage before transplantation of 254 European children wi...
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) routinely recommends three vaccines - influenza, hepatitis B, and pneumococcal vaccines - for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) dialysis patients. METHODS: We sought to assess vaccination coverage among fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare beneficiaries with ESRD who received Part B dialysis services at any point from January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2015 (through June 30, 2016 for influenza). To assess influenza vaccination rates in a given influenza season, we restricted the population to beneficiaries who were continuously enrolled in ...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Conclusions Several mortality predictors among unvaccinated Veterans with serious pneumococcal disease were consistent with pneumococcal vaccine recommendations, including organ or immune system dysfunction–related conditions. Other predictors, including neurologic disorders or dementia, may warrant expanded vaccination recommendations.
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research
Abstract Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis are at increased risk of pneumococcal disease. We evaluated the immunogenicity of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in this population. Eligible patients with ESRD on dialysis were given a single dose of PCV13 vaccine. Serum antibody concentrations against 13 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides were measured at baseline, 2 months (m) and 12m post-vaccination. Response to vaccine was defined as a ≥ 2-fold increase in antibody concentration from baseline and an absolute post-vaccination value of at least 1 μg/ml. Seventeen patie...
Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Clin Vaccine Immunol Source Type: research
Conclusion There is mounting evidence to suggest that vaccinations and medications containing aluminum salts are harmful to brain development. We need to ask ourselves why a vaccination known to contain well above the recommended levels of aluminum has been passed as safe for use in pregnancy by the Brazilian Health Ministry. For more information on the dangers of aluminum, I recommend parents read the growing number of articles, studies and peer-reviewed papers that the Children’s Medical Safety Research Institute have listed on their website.   References:
Source: - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Christina England Logical Top Stories adjuvants Aluminum Salts Brazil Dr. Sears Microcephaly Source Type: blogs
Authors: Duval L, George C, Hedrick N, Woodruff S, Kleinpeter MA Abstract Vaccinations are available for primary prevention of many infections in adults. Morbidity and mortality from invasive diseases such as influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) remain high and may be largely preventable by vaccination of high-risk adults, including dialysis patients. The current 23-valent vaccine-efficacious, with a low adverse event profile-is widely available. Revaccination is also recommended in patients with immunocompromising conditions, including chronic kidney disease. Despite having many opportunities to b...
Source: Advances in Peritoneal Dialysis. Conference on Peritoneal Dialysis - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Adv Perit Dial Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Transplant Infectious Disease - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
More News: Acetic Acid | Biomedical Science | Carbohydrates | Dialysis | Meningitis Vaccine | Pneomococcal Vaccine | Sodium | Vaccines