Low-dose cadmium potentiates lung inflammatory response to 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in mice.

Low-dose cadmium potentiates lung inflammatory response to 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in mice. Environ Int. 2019 Apr 15;127:720-729 Authors: Chandler JD, Hu X, Ko EJ, Park S, Fernandes J, Lee YT, Orr ML, Hao L, Smith MR, Neujahr DC, Uppal K, Kang SM, Jones DP, Go YM Abstract Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic, pro-inflammatory metal ubiquitous in the diet that accumulates in body organs due to inefficient elimination. Responses to influenza virus infection are variable, particularly severity of pneumonia. We used a murine model of chronic low-dose oral exposure to Cd to test if increased lung tissue Cd worsened inflammation in response to sub-lethal H1N1 infection. The results show that Cd-treated mice had increased lung tissue inflammatory cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, T lymphocytes and dendritic cells, following H1N1 infection. Lung genetic responses to infection (increasing TNF-α, interferon and complement, and decreasing myogenesis) were also exacerbated. To reveal the organization of a network structure, pinpointing molecules critical to Cd-altered lung function, global correlations were made for immune cell counts, leading edge gene transcripts and metabolites. This revealed that Cd increased correlation of myeloid immune cells with pro-inflammatory genes, particularly interferon-γ and metabolites. Together, the results show that Cd burden in mice increased inflammation in response to sub-lethal H1N1 challenge, which was coordin...
Source: Environment International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

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In this study, we aim to analyze the current evidence and findings associated with influenza and other emergent viral infections, namely, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV).Among medical conditions, community-acquired respiratory infections are the most frequent reason for ventilatory support in ICUs. Community-acquired pneumonia in a severe form including the need of invasive mechanical ventilation and/or vasopressors is associated with high mortality rates. However, after the pandemic that occurred in 2009 by H1N1 influenza, the number of cases being admitted to ICUs ...
Source: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Purpose of review Overview of influenza infection, focusing on outcome and complications in critically ill patients. We also discuss relevant elements in immunopathogenesis and their role as predictors of severity. Recent findings Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus circulates seasonally and remains the predominant subtype among intensive care patients. Mortality in acute respiratory failure (ARF) is around 20%, independent of influenza subtypes. During severe infection, the imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory molecules, such as Th1 and Th17 cytokines, is associated with complicated infections and m...
Source: Current Opinion in Critical Care - Category: Nursing Tags: SEVERE INFECTIONS: Edited by Michael S. Niederman Source Type: research
Conclusions: The clinical features and outcomes of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and current circulating seasonal influenza A strains were comparable in hospitalised patients. However, since both seasonal and pandemic influenza can lead to significant morbidity and mortality, the impact of pre-existing seasonal influenza should not be underestimated during the pandemic period. PMID: 31304711 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
Poshmaal Dhar1 and Julie McAuley2* 1Faculty of Health, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Peter Doherty Institute, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia The family of cell surface (cs-) mucins are constitutively expressed at the cell surface by nearly all epithelial cells, beneath the gel-mucin layer. All cs-mucin family members have structural features that enable them to act as a releasable decoy barrier to mucosal pathogens, by providing ligands for pathogen binding and the ability to shed the bound extracellular domain. Due ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Human challenge studies and systems biology approaches are important tools that should be used in concert to advance our understanding of influenza infection and provide targets for novel therapeutics and immunizations. Introduction Although influenza virus was recognized as an important pathogen over a century ago, influenza continues to cause a significant burden of disease. In the United States alone, it's estimated that in the 2017–2018 season there were 959,000 hospitalizations related to influenza illness, and 79,400 deaths (CDC, 2018). Worldwide, WHO estimates that annual influenza...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Jennifer M. Rudd1, Sivasami Pulavendran1, Harshini K. Ashar1, Jerry W. Ritchey1, Timothy A. Snider1, Jerry R. Malayer1, Montelongo Marie1, Vincent T. K. Chow2 and Teluguakula Narasaraju1* 1Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, United States2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore Exaggerated host innate immune responses have been implicated in severe influenza pneumonia. We have previously demonstrated that excessive neutrophils recruited during in...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
(CNN) — From climate change to superbugs, the World Health Organization has laid out 10 big threats to our global health in 2019. And unless these threats get addressed, millions of lives will be in jeopardy. Here’s a snapshot of 10 urgent health issues, according to the United Nations’ public health agency: Not vaccinating when you can One of the most controversial recent health topics in the US is now an international concern. “Vaccine hesitancy — the reluctance or refusal to vaccinate despite the availability of vaccines — threatens to reverse progress made in tackling vaccine-prevent...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health News CNN Local TV Source Type: news
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of pneumonia and secondary bacterial infections during the pandemic of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09.
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Abstract This paper aims to test the hypothesis of possible fatal immunological reactions to the A/H1N1 virus of the 1918 "Spanish" influenza pandemic caused by previous exposure to the A/H3N8 virus of the 1890-2 "Russian" influenza pandemic. Reconstruction of mortality peaks from influenza and excess pneumonia deaths in New Zealand before 1918 from newspapers and official death records enables comparison with peaks of influenza mortality by age in 1918 from individual death records. Influenza outbreaks in 1885, 1890-2, 1894 and 1898 appear to match mortality peaks for males in the 1918 pandemi...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research
AbstractWe evaluated the anti-influenza-virus effects ofMelia components and discuss the utility of these components. The effects of leaf components ofMelia azedarach L. on viruses were examined, and plaque inhibition tests were performed. Thein vivo efficacy ofM. azedarach L. was tested in a mouse model. Leaf components ofMelia azedarach L. markedly inhibited the growth of various influenza viruses. In an initial screening, multiplication and haemagglutination (HA) activities of H1N1, H3N2, H5, and B influenza viruses were inactivated by the liquid extract of leaves ofM. azedarach L. (MLE). Furthermore, plaque inhibition ...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
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