Efficient Multi-Kernel DCNN with Pixel Dropout for Stroke MRI Segmentation

In this study, we propose a deep convolution neural network for stroke magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) segmentation. The main structure of our network consists of two symmetrical deep sub-networks, in which dense blocks are embedded for extracting effective features from sparse pixels to alleviate the over-fitting problem of deep networks. We use the multi-kernel to divide the network into two sub-networks for acquiring more receptive fields, and the dropout regularization method to achieve an effective feature mapping. For the post-processing of the soft segmentation, we use image median filtering to alleviate noises and preserve the edge details of images. Our network is evaluated on two public benchmark segmentation challenges (SISS: sub-acute ischemic stroke lesion segmentation and SPES: acute stroke outcome/penumbra estimation) with multi-modality MRI sequences. According to the results of the public benchmark reports, among 9 teams participating in both SISS and SPES challenges at the same time, our network achieves the top performance on SISS challenge, and the top 3 performance on the SPES challenge. In addition, our network also exhibits state-of-the-art performance compared with other segmentation methods. Finally, we extensively evaluate our network with an ablation experiment. The experimental results show that both multi-kernel and dropout strategies can improve the segmentation accuracy of our proposed network.
Source: Neurocomputing - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Objective: To assess the reproducibility of 3.0T high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging for the identification and quantification of atherosclerotic plaques in the middle cerebral artery. Methods: Sixty-nine consecutive patients with ischemic stroke or asymptomatic stenosis (>30%) of the middle cerebral artery underwent 3.0T high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Two independent investigators reviewed all images with 1 investigator re-evaluating all images 4 weeks later. Wall characteristics of the middle cerebral artery, including plaque surface morphology, plaque location, plaque components, and ...
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: Frequency of recent ischemic stroke in patients with symptomatic PE was higher in patients with PFO than in those without PFO. This finding supports the hypothesis that paradoxical embolism is an important mechanism of ischemic stroke in patients with PFO. Primary Funding Source: French Ministry of Health. PMID: 31060047 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Annals of Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Ann Intern Med Source Type: research
In conclusion, our study revealed the characteristics of autoimmune disease-related stroke. For patients with multiple acute cerebral infarcts within non-single arterial territories, autoimmune disease is an important etiology not to be neglected. Multiple stroke mechanisms were involved in these cases. PMID: 31062611 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cell Transplantation - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Transplant Source Type: research
Conclusions: The TRELAS sub-study indicates that noninvasive cardiac MRI may provide helpful information to identify stroke patients with or without acute coronary syndrome. Our findings might help to select stroke patients in urgent need of coronary angiography.Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2019;9:19 –24
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, in participants with ischemic stroke, stem cell transplantation was associated with a reduced neurological impairment, but not with a better functional outcome. No obvious safety concerns were raised. However, these conclusions came mostly from small RCTs with high risk of bias, and the certainty of the evidence ranged from low to very low. More well-designed trials are needed. PMID: 31055832 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
Conclusion Due to its long-term and often invisible course, CCCI has received less attention than acute cerebral ischemic stroke. However, without appropriate intervention, CCCI may lead to a variety of adverse events. Because the pathophysiological changes associated with CCCI are complex, pharmacological research in this area has been disappointing. Recent research suggests that RLIC, which is less invasive and more well-tolerated than drug treatment, can activate endogenous protective mechanisms during CCCI. In the present report, we reviewed studies related to CCCI (Table 1), as well as those related to stroke and sta...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: The systematic review will provide evidence to assess the association between features of carotid plaque and ipsilateral recurrent stroke or ischemic events. PROSPERO registration number: PROSPERO CRD42019124043.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Study Protocol Systematic Review Source Type: research
It aimed to investigate the incidence and final diagnosis of hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) signs in patients initially suspected of having a transient ischemic attack (TIA). In retrospective manner, a series of consecutive series of patients who arrived at the emergency department and was initially assessed as TIA within 12 hours of symptom onset between July 2015 and December 2016 were enrolled. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging protocol including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and pre- and post-contrast fluid attenuation inversion recovery imaging (FLAIR) was conducted to evaluate the ischemic l...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research
Conclusion: Intracranial artery calcification is common in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and the intracranial carotid artery is most frequently affected. Intracranial arterial calcifications might be associated with imaging markers of SVD and are highly correlated with WMHs, lacunes, and CMBs. Quantification of calcification on CT provides additional information on the pathophysiology of SVD. Intracranial arterial calcification could act as a potential marker of SVD. Introduction Atherosclerosis is a systemic vascular process that is considered a major cause of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular di...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: These findings indicate that TBI differentially affects the levels of sex-steroid hormones in men and women patients. Plasma levels of testosterone could be a good candidate blood marker to predict recovery from unconsciousness after sTBI for male patients. Introduction Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide and is increasing in incidence (1). Patients with acute severe TBI (sTBI) often develop severe disorders of consciousness, i.e., coma, minimally conscious state or vegetative state. Although many patients may regain consciousness during the 1-month post-TBI p...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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