Vaccines for emerging pathogens: from research to the clinic.
Vaccines for emerging pathogens: from research to the clinic. Clin Exp Immunol. 2019 May;196(2):155-156 Authors: Williamson ED Abstract In this two-part series of reviews, we have invited experts in their fields to contribute articles on the status of vaccine research and development for emerging pathogens. This topic has been brought into sharp focus in recent years following significant outbreaks of viral diseases such as those causing severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome, as well as devastating outbreaks of diseases caused by the Ebola, Marburg, Zika and Lassa fever viruses, to name only a few examples. Additionally, bacterial infections leading to bubonic and pneumonic plague, most notably in Madagascar in 2018, as well as malaria in many tropical countries, melioidosis in south east Asia and tularaemia in northern Europe and North America, have incurred significant morbidity and mortality. In this review series, the life cycle of these pathogens and the epidemiology of disease have been reviewed in the context of potential points of intervention for the prevention of human infection. Many of the emerging pathogens are zoonoses and, as such, there is scope for intervention at the animal/insect/environmental reservoir. Other pathogens covered in this review series are considered to be re-emerging, such as multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. PMID: 30993689 [PubMed - in process]
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical AnalysisAuthor(s): Richard R. Rustandi, Melissa HammAbstractCDTa, an actin ADP-ribosylation transferase, is a binary toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium difficile which is commonly associated with the hypervirulent strain present in Clostridium difficile infections. The mutated form of CDTa, 4mCDTa, is one of the components in the tetravalent Clostridium difficile vaccine in which the residual toxicity of the ADP-ribosylation activity needs to be monitored for safety reasons. There are several ADP- ribosylation activi...
We present the case of a 25-year-old woman admitted due to behavioral disorders, generalized paresthesiasand acute respiratory deterioration compatible with a respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring orotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation and empirical initiation of antibiotic and antiviral therapy. Chest tomography showed pneumomediastinum and changes suggestive of pulmonary infection. In the presence of neurological symptoms, a central nervous system (CNS) infection was suspected and the cerebrospinal fluid showed no pleocytosis, hiperproteinorrachy without glucose consumption; cranial CT scan was normal. D...
New Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations allow more flexibility for use of either tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) or tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccines in three scenarios where only Td had been previously recommended, most notably for tetanus booster doses recommended every 10 years for all adults.
Pregnant women need to receive vaccines during pregnancy to keep themselves and their infants safe. Barriers to receiving vaccines, such as lack of insurance coverage, need to be removed so mothers and infants can be protected.
This report describes that birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection during pregnancy increased fourfold in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, areas with widespread local transmission of Zika virus during the study period.
CDC updates demographic characteristics, self-reported substance use, and hospitalization dates for e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury patients reported to CDC, as well as the distribution of emergency department visits related to e-cigarette, or vaping, products.
Vitamin E acetate, which has been detected in tetrahydrocannabinol -containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products, is strongly linked to the e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury outbreak; however, evidence is not sufficient to rule out the contribution of other chemicals of concern, including chemicals in either THC- or non-THC-containing products, in some reported EVALI cases.
In this study, we investigate the dynamics of OBs in activated gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium yoelii using the female OB-specific marker protein, G377. After activation, female gametocyte OBs migrate to the parasite surface and fuse to form large vesicles beneath the parasite plasma membrane. At the marginal region of female gametocytes, fused vesicles secrete contents by exocytosis into the parasitophorous vacuole space, prior to parasite egress via the break-down of the erythrocyte membrane. This is the first detailed description of how proteins are transported through osmiophilic bodies.
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and WildlifeAuthor(s): Ronel Pienaar, P. Christo Troskie, Antoinette I. Josemans, Fred T. Potgieter, Boitumelo B. Maboko, Abdalla A. Latif, Ben J. MansAbstractThe Theileria are apicomplexan parasites transmitted by ticks to vertebrate hosts. Most Theileria species exhibit some form of host or vector specificity, since under endemic conditions only a limited number of tick species act as vectors and not all vertebrate hosts are able to maintain a persistent carrier state. Data for Theileria sp. (buffalo) suggest host ...
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