Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Use in Warfighting: Benefits, Risks, and Future Prospects

Conclusion The aim of this paper was to examine whether military tDCS use can be efficacious and ethical in military settings. Our assessment is that tDCS offers a number of cognitive, motor, and perceptual enhancement opportunities which could provide value in military situations like training and operations. There is potential scope for use in a number of key areas that directly affect practical battlefield advantage and survivability, such as deceptive capabilities, risk-taking, threat detection, perception, and physiological improvement. Additionally, tDCS has the potential to improve command and control decision making by enhancing aspects of cognition, such as planning, problem solving, memory, and probabilistic assessment. As well as benefits, tDCS poses a number of risks that need to be considered, and in some cases addressed by military organisations. Overall, it is the opinion of the current authors that the safety concerns are manageable, and the risks moderate. The technique has been tested on thousands of subjects, with most studies reporting only temporary minor adverse effects such as itching, tingling, and headaches. The most severe adverse consequence of tDCS reported to date was abrasions at the locations of the electrodes (which can be mitigated through the application of saline soaked sponges enclosing conductive rubber electrodes). The intensity and rate of occurrence of adverse events are so low that some effects (such as headaches) are reported in sim...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 13 December 2019Source: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological PsychiatryAuthor(s): Rebecca McMillan, Rachael Sumner, Anna Forsyth, Doug Campbell, Gemma Malpas, Elizabeth Maxwell, Carolyn Deng, John Hay, Rhys Ponton, Frederick Sundram, Suresh MuthukumaraswamyAbstractA single subanaesthetic dose of ketamine rapidly alleviates the symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, few studies have investigated the acute effects of ketamine on the BOLD pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) response and EEG spectra. In a randomised, double-blind, active placebo-co...
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
es DU Abstract Human t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy (HAM) is a progressive neurological disease whose diagnosis is defined by clinical manifestations and seropositivity for HTLV-1 infection. Cognitive impairment (CI) is considered to occur after spinal impairment. A 51-year-old HTLV-1-infected man classified as an asymptomatic carrier presented difficulties in listening comprehension and executive memory. He was assessed for central auditory processing (CAP), cognition (event-related auditory evoked potential [P300]), and otoneurological functions (galvanic vestibular-evoked myogen...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
We present a landscape-level analysis of mosquito abundance measured by daily counts of Ae. albopictus from 338 trap sites in 12 counties during May-September 2017. During the study period, the mean number of Ae. albopictus caught per day of trapping across all sites was 3.21. We constructed four sets of negative binomial generalized linear models to evaluate how trapping methodology, land cover, as well as temperature and precipitation at multiple time intervals influenced Ae. albopictus abundance. Biogents-Sentinel (BGS) traps were 2.78 times as efficient as gravid traps and 1.49 times as efficient as CO2-baited CDC ligh...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Daan Christiaens, Jelle Veraart, Lucilio Cordero-Grande, Anthony N. Price, Jana Hutter, Joseph V. Hajnal, J-Donald TournierAbstractProbing microstructure with diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) on a scale orders of magnitude below the imaging resolution relies on biophysical modelling of the signal response in the tissue. The vast majority of these biophysical models of diffusion in white matter assume that the measured dMRI signal is the sum of the signals emanating from each of the constituent compartments, each of which exhibits a d...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
This study aims, first, to validate a retrospectively-gated implementation of the DENSE method for assessing brain tissue pulsations as a physiological marker, and second, to use the acquired measurements to explore intracranial volume dynamics. We acquired repeated measurements of cerebral volumetric strain in 8 healthy subjects, and internally validated these measurements by comparing them to spinal CSF stroke volumes obtained in the same scan session.Peak volumetric strain was found to be highly repeatable between scan sessions. First/second measured peak volumetric strains were: (6.4 ± 1.7)x10−4/(6.7...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Erez Simony, Catie ChangAbstractNaturalistic stimuli offer promising avenues for investigating brain function across the rich, realistic spectrum of human experiences. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of brain activity during naturalistic paradigms have provided new information about dynamic neural processing in ecologically valid contexts. Yet, the complex, uncontrolled nature of such stimuli -- and the resulting mixture of neuronal and physiological responses embedded within the fMRI signals -- present challenges with resp...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
In this report we conclude normal inflammatory markers cannot be used as exclusion criteria for the disease. We also review the body of literature to summarise the key features of the condition to assist clinicians in its diagnosis.
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (PLEFA) - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research
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Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research
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