Mechanisms Through Which Some Mitochondria-Generated Metabolites Act as Second Messengers That Are Essential Contributors to the Aging Process in Eukaryotes Across Phyla

Conclusions In this review, we analyzed mechanisms through which mitobolites, a distinct set of mitochondria-generated metabolites, can be released from mitochondria and then act as second messengers that contribute to cellular and organismal aging by regulating longevity-defining processes outside of mitochondria. Our analysis indicates that in eukaryotes across phyla, these second messengers of cellular aging exhibit the following common features: (1) they are produced in mitochondria in response to certain changes in the nutrient, stress, proliferation or age status of the cell; it remains unknown, however, what kind of protein sensors can respond to such changes by transmitting the signal to mitochondria so that mitochondria can increase the rates of catabolic and anabolic reactions producing these mitobolites; (2) their release from mitochondria and delivery to different non-mitochondrial locations within the cell also depend on these changes in the nutrient, stress, proliferation or age status of the cell; and (3) in cellular locations outside of mitochondria, they activate or inhibit a distinct set of protein sensors that in response set up a pro- or anti-aging cellular pattern by changing the efficiencies of certain pro- or anti-aging cellular processes; for some mitobolites, the identities of such protein sensors and/or mechanisms of their action are presently unknown. One important challenge is to define molecular mechanisms underlying the protein-mediated signalin...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research

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Re: Yang CJ, Kumar A, Gulack BC, Mulvihill MS, Hartwig MG, Wang X, et  al. Long-term outcomes after lobectomy for non–small cell lung cancer when unsuspected pN2 disease is found: A National Cancer Data Base analysis. J Thoracic Cardiovasc Surg. 2016;151:1380-8.
Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Tags: Notice of Correction Source Type: research
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Source: Public Policy Reports - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: news
Mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are yet unclear. Specific deletion of the ER-component membralin in astrocytes manifested postnatal motor defects and lethality in mice, causing the accumulation of extracellular glutamate through reducing the glutamate transporter EAAT2. Restoring EAAT2 levels in membralin-KO astrocytes limited astrocyte-dependent excitotoxicity in motor neurons. Transcriptomic profiles from mouse astrocytic membralin-KO motor cortex indicated significant perturbation in KEGG pathway components related to ALS, including downregulation of Eaat2 and upreg...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Lactation is a unique period in which the maternal skeleton acts as a storehouse to provide substantial calcium to milk. Women who exclusively breastfeed lose an average of 210 mg of calcium per day, which doubles or triples with twins and triplets. Data from rodent and clinical studies are consistent with skeletal calcium being released to provide much of the calcium needed for milk production. This is programmed to occur independently of dietary calcium intake or intestinal calcium absorption, which remains at the prepregnant rate in breastfeeding women. After weaning, the skeleton is restored to its prior mineralization...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Lactation induces bone loss to provide sufficient calcium in the milk, a process that involves osteoclastic bone resorption but also osteocytes and perilacunar resorption. The exact mechanisms by which osteocytes contribute to bone loss remain elusive. Osteocytes express genes required in osteoclasts for bone resorption, including cathepsin K (Ctsk), and lactation elevates their expression. We show that Ctsk deletion in osteocytes prevented the increase in osteocyte lacunar area seen during lactation, as well as the effects of lactation to increase osteoclast numbers and decrease trabecular bone volume, cortical thickness,...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2019, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C9CP02561H, PaperXuhua Li, Jiangtao Lei, Ruxi Qi, Luogang Xie, Guanghong Wei Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with the abnormal self-assembly of amyloid- β (Aβ) peptide into toxic oligomers and fibrils. Recent experiments reported that Aβ16-22, containing the central hydrophobic core (CHC) of... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
New J. Chem., 2019, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C9NJ02085C, PaperYunpo Sun, Chunli Liu, Jian Xie, Dagao Zhuang, Wenquan Zheng, X. B. Zhao Although Prussian blue analogues (PBA) show promising applications as cathodes for potassium-ion batteries (PIB), it remains a challenge to synthesize high-performance PBA enabling fast/reversible K-ion diffusion. Herein, we report synthesis... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - New J. Chem. latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
Dalton Trans., 2019, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C9DT01855G, PaperBitupon Borthakur, Ashwini Kumar Phukan Cyclic alkyl amino carbene (CAAC) anchored [FeFe] –hydrogenase model complex featuring rotated conformation at one of the iron centers is found to be promising candidate for effective production of dihydrogen. A... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - Dalton Trans. latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
Analyst, 2019, Advance Article DOI: 10.1039/C9AN00691E, PaperBo Yin, Sha Sha Li, Shao Hua Lu, Jia Ying Mi, Hong Lin Zhai The feature information was extracted from the 3D spectrum by the TM method, and the simultaneous quantification of intracellular thiols was realized. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - Analyst latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractA novel series of coumarin-pyridine/fused pyridine hybrids were designed and synthesized. Their anticancer activity was evaluated against human cancer cell lines MCF-7, HCT-116, HepG-2, and A549. Compounds9,10, and11 showed the most potent growth inhibitory activities with IC50 values ranging from 1.1 to 2.4  μM, against MCF-7 cell line. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that these compounds induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase followed by apoptotic cell death. Consistent with these results, the activity of caspase-3 in MCF-7 cells was tested. The results indicated that compounds9,10, and11 increas...
Source: Medicinal Chemistry Research - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
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