From “Serum Sickness” to “Xenosialitis”: Past, Present, and Future Significance of the Non-human Sialic Acid Neu5Gc

Conclusions and Perspectives In this review, we have discussed important milestones from the early description of “Serum-sickness” as being due to antibodies directed against Neu5Gc epitopes all the way to the present-day therapeutic implications of these antibodies in cancer therapy. Some of these milestones have been represented in a concise timeline (Figure 6). While the “Xenosialitis” hypothesis is well-supported in the human-like mouse models, it has yet to be conclusively proven in humans. It remains to be seen if “Xenosialitis” plays a role in other uniquely-human diseases. FIGURE 6 Figure 6. Timeline detailing important discoveries related to Neu5Gc and anti-Neu5Gc antibodies. Adopted and modified from Samraj et al. (65). There also remain certain unresolved complexities of food sources of Neu5Gc and their propensity for metabolic incorporation. It is noteworthy that processed red meat is much more closely associated with disease risk than red meat per se. This is usually explained on the basis of preservatives added to process red meat. However, the same preservatives are added to other foods but are not associated with the same disease risks. One possible explanation is that the predigested nature of the processed food enhances absorption and incorporation of Neu5Gc. In this regard, there is currently no assessment of the relative impact of different foods and food processing on absorption in general. What is needed is t...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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AbstractIntroductionMaternal perception of fetal movements has long been considered an indicator of fetal well ‐being. A sudden decrease in the number of fetal movements is suggestive of fetal compromise. We aimed to determine whether the maternal perception of reduced fetal movements (RFM) is associated with placental pathological lesions in a low‐risk term population.Material and methodsOur study was a case ‐control study that was performed in a single university center. Placental histopathology, maternal demographics, labor characteristics, and neonatal outcomes of term, singleton pregnancies with maternal percept...
Source: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Source: BMJ Comments - Category: General Medicine Source Type: forums
Abstract The study aimed to investigate the effect of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit B (EIF3B) on cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis as well as the underlying mechanism in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). EIF3B expression was detected in AML-193, HL-60, OCI-AML2, and KG-1 cell lines and human primary bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC). EIF3B knockdown was realized by transfecting EIF3B ShRNA plasmids, and EIF3B knockdown and WNT2 overexpression were established by transfecting EIF3B ShRNA plasmids and WNT2 overexpression plasmids into KG-1 cells. The effect of EIF3B knockdown, and EIF3...
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: miR-21 and miR-155 promote the progression of Burkitt's lymphoma through PI3K/AKT signaling by targeting C1RL and TCAP. Our findings will provide a novel biomarker and therapeutic strategies for Burkitt's lymphoma. PMID: 32055277 [PubMed]
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on discordant lymphoma consisting of mantle cell lymphoma and angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma. There seems to be no relation these two different kinds of lymphoma, and EBV infection might prompt the development of angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma after transplantation. Rash is a common clinical manifestation when T cell lymphoma develops after treatment for MCL. PMID: 32055275 [PubMed]
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research
This study investigates the prognostic impact of the expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 detected by immunohistochemistry in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The study also evaluates the treatment outcome by inhibition of the HIF-1α and TLR 3 pathway (nuclear factor [NF]-κB) in an OSCC transplantation model in nude mice. Statistical analysis of immunohistochemical results with clinical findings that included overall survival outcomes was performed for 90 OSCC patients. Forty nude mice were divided into four groups (control; inhibition of HIF-1α; inhibit...
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The authors report an unusual case of ruptured jejunal GIST with hemoperitoneum mimicking ovarian carcinoma. Therefore, GIST, in addition to ovarian cancer, should be considered in patients with an increased serum level of CA-125 and an abdominopelvic mass. PMID: 32055272 [PubMed]
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research
In this study, we chose Cytokeratin-pan, GFAP, and LCA as three immunohistochemical indicators. Intraoperative IHC was done by Novodiax ihcDirect technology combined with Leica Bond auto-staining. Compared with the manual method recommended for the reagents (Novodiax ihcDirect), the results show that auto-staining has better stability and high reproducibility in coloration, which has broad prospects for future application. PMID: 32055271 [PubMed]
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research
Abstract V-domain Ig suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA), which belongs to the B7 family and is expressed predominantly on hematopoetic cells, myeloid, granulocytic and T cells, can suppresses T-cell activation in vivo and vitro. The blockade of VISTA has displayed brilliant results in certain murine tumor models. But to date, little is known about the expression and impact of VISTA in human cervical cancer (CC). To fill this gap of information, we systemically investigated the expression of VISTA on tumor cells, intratumoral immune cells (ICs) and vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in a group of patients with ...
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research
Abstract AIM: The underlying mechanisms of chemoresistance-induced recurrence of ovarian carcinoma are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of RAD51C and its role in ovarian tumorigenesis and progression. METHODS: 60 cases of ovarian epithelial tumors (30 benign and 30 malignant tumors, respectively) were enrolled from 2014 to 2016. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate RAD51C expression in tumor tissues, and RT-PCR was employed to test RAD51C mRNA levels in SKOV3, A2780, and CAOV3 cell lines. Targeted knockdown of RAD51C was achieved with siRNA to explor...
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research
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