Antimicrobial Resistance Genes, Cassettes, and Plasmids Present in Salmonella enterica Associated With United States Food Animals

This study revealed that a diverse group of plasmids, carrying AR genes, are responsible for the phenotypic resistance seen in Salmonella isolated from United States food animals. It was also determined that many plasmids carry similar ARCs. Introduction Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of foodborne illnesses globally, with an estimated 1.2 million cases each year in the United States alone (CDC, 2013). Symptoms range from self-limiting gastrointestinal illness to sepsis. These infections can lead to death unless treated with antibiotics (Crump et al., 2015). Unfortunately, antimicrobial resistance (AR) has been increasing since the 1980s (Crump et al., 2015). The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers drug-resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella to be a serious level threat to human health, and currently reports that 8% of Salmonella infections are either multidrug resistant (resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobials), or resistant to an antibiotic used for treatment, such as ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin (CDC, 2013). Up to 94% of United States Salmonella infections are estimated to be foodborne, demonstrating the importance of investigating Salmonella isolated from food animals (Scallan et al., 2011). The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) tracks antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria associated with animals, retail meat, and foodborne illness in humans. In 2015, 21.3% of animals ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Xyloglucan/gelose plus ORS was effective and safe in treating acute diarrhea in children. PMID: 33028102 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
Conclusions: (1) Data at our center suggests at least a regional implementation gap in GBS screening and IAP. (2) The decline in the resistance rate ofE. coli for all antimicrobial substances might indicate that the reduction of prenatal antibiotics use is beneficial and that neonatal antibiotic stewardship programs should include pregnant women as well.What is Known:• GBS screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis led to a 32%-reduction in GBS disease in Germany with a 0.75 (92:122) ratio of early-onset disease to late-onset disease in 2009–2010.• Prenatal antibiotic use might increase the risk of E....
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
Abstract Trace metals concentrations of 25 elements were determined for 22 subcomponents of biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste samples representing the United States municipal solid waste (MSW) stream collected during three separate waste sorts. The subcomponent trace metal concentrations and estimated composition results were used to predict trace metal concentrations present in the overall MSW stream along with MSW compost and waste to energy (WTE) ash, which were compared to health-based standards (i.e., US EPA regional screening levels) and to values previously reported in the literature. These estimate...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
ConclusionThe COMQ-12 could be a useful tool to differentiate chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma.
Source: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Secretary Azar testified before Congress that “herd immunity is not the strategy of the U.S. government.” Yet, frequently the Trump Administration’s rhetoric tells a different story. The Administration’s recent actions on the ground belie its claims of not advancing a herd immunity policy.
Source: Healthcare News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Tags: Healthcare /healthcare Innovation /innovation business pharma & Source Type: news
The researchers urge Australian leaders to safeguard the nation's political system "from these very insidious and ongoing threats."
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
CONCLUSION: Our study showed that transaminitis on admission was associated with severe clinical outcomes such as admission to the intensive care unit, need for mechanical ventilation, and mortality. PMID: 33033568 [PubMed]
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research
Authors: Philips CA, Ahamed R, Rajesh S, George T, Mohanan M, Augustine P Abstract With growing antipathy toward conventional prescription drugs due to the fear of adverse events, the general and patient populations have been increasingly using complementary and alternative medications (CAMs) for managing acute and chronic diseases. The general misconception is that natural herbal-based preparations are devoid of toxicity, and hence short- and long-term use remain justified among people as well as the CAM practitioners who prescribe these medicines. In this regard, Ayurvedic herbal medications have become one of th...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research
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