Inspired by the microbiome, can poop pills and gut bugs help boost cancer immunotherapy's effects?

Companies are testing the ability of fecal transplants and bacteria-stuffed pills to make checkpoint inhibitors work for more people
Source: Chemical and Engineering News - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research

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ConclusionsFor the first time, a listeria vaccine-based immunotherapy was shown to be able to induce a tumor antigen-specific T cell response within the tumor microenvironment of a “cold” tumor such as PDAC and sensitize the tumor to checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Moreover, this combination immunotherapy led to objective tumor responses and survival benefit in the mice with spontaneously developed PDAC tumors. Therefore, our study supports developing Lm-ANXA2 as a therapeut ic agent in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody for PDAC treatment.
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Recent successes in cancer immunotherapy have been tempered by sub-optimal clinical responses in the majority of patients. The impaired anti-tumor immune responses observed in these patients are likely a consequence of immune system dysfunction contributed to by a variety of factors that include, but are not limited to, diminished antigen presentation/detection, leukopenia, a coordinated network of immunosuppressive cell surface proteins, cytokines and cellular mediators. Monocytes that have diminished or no HLA-DR expression, called CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg monocytes, have emerged as important mediators of tumor-induced immunosu...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
CD4+ T cells differentiate into various T helper subsets characterized by distinct cytokine secreting profiles that confer them effector functions adapted to a variety of infectious or endogenous threats. Regulatory CD4+ T cells are another specialized subset that plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of immune tolerance to self-antigens. Manipulating effector or regulatory CD4+ T cells responses is a promising immunotherapy strategy for, respectively, chronical viral infections and cancer, or severe autoimmune diseases and transplantation. Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) is an emerging approach that necessitates definin...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Authors: Khan AM, Devarakonda S, Bumma N, Chaudhry M, Benson DM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite rapid advances in myeloma treatment with the development of new drugs, curative therapies remain elusive. Relapsed/refractory disease related to progressive dysregulation of immune system and acquired genetic abnormalities continues to be a major obstacle in achieving cure. Immune-based therapy harnessing the host defense mechanism of natural killer (NK) cells is a promising avenue in the treatment of myeloma. Areas covered: Here, we discuss the biology and cytotoxic activity of NK cells and the potential role of these in...
Source: Expert Review of Hematology - Category: Hematology Tags: Expert Rev Hematol Source Type: research
This study shows that mRNA levels of the aging related lamin A splice variant progerin, associated with premature aging in HGPS, were significantly upregulated in subjects with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Moreover, our data revealed a significantly positive correlation of BMI with progerin mRNA. These data provide to our knowledge for the first-time evidence for a possible involvement of progerin in previously observed accelerated aging of overweight and obese individuals potentially limiting their longevity. Our results also showed that progerin mRNA was positively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP). This might suggest an as...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusions The clinical trials discussed here, which include several trials investigating novel therapeutic targets, demonstrate that translational research in pemphigus and pemphigoid is a fast-growing field. We thus expect that several novel treatments will be shortly available for the treatment of pemphigus and pemphigoid patients. Given the high, and thus far unmet, medical need in this field (110), this is highly encouraging and will hopefully improve the quality of life of the affected patients. In addition to the compounds and targets described here, several new targets have been recently identified in preclinical...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Discussion MDSCs violently emerge in pathological conditions in an attempt to limit potentially harmful immune and inflammatory responses. Mechanisms supporting their expansion and survival are deeply investigated in cancer, in the perspective to reactivate specific antitumor responses and prevent their contribution to disease evolution. These findings will likely contribute to improve the targeting of MDSCs in anticancer immunotherapies, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. New evidence indicates that the expansion of myeloid cell differentiation in pathology is subject to fine-tuning, as its...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Alessandro Poggi1*, Roberto Benelli2, Roberta Venè1, Delfina Costa1, Nicoletta Ferrari1, Francesca Tosetti1 and Maria Raffaella Zocchi3 1Molecular Oncology and Angiogenesis Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 2Immunology Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 3Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy It is well established that natural killer (NK) cells are involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Indeed, they can recognize molecules induced at the cell surface by stress signals ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions Toxoplasma gondii infection induces a strong innate and adaptive immune response. While the innate immunity is important for controlling the early stages of the infection (Yarovinsky, 2014), the adaptive immunity is critical for restricting the parasite replication during the later stages (Gazzinelli et al., 1992). Amongst the adaptive immune subsets, CD8 T cells are the primary effector cells while CD4 T cells play an essential helper role to maintain long-term immunity (Casciotti et al., 2002). Notwithstanding, a robust CD8 T cell immunity induced during acute phase of infection, does not result in the total...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Hui Zhou, Xiaoyan Fu, Qian Li and Ting Niu* Department of Hematology and Research Laboratory of Hematology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China Background: Immune checkpoint inhibition therapy with monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), including nivolumab and pembrolizumab, has demonstrated powerful clinical efficacy in the treatment of advanced cancers. However, there is no evidence-based systematic review on the safety and efficacy of anti-PD-1 antibody in treating lymphoma. Methods: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of nivolumab/pembrolizumab, we analyzed clin...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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