Whole Brain Mapping of Long-Range Direct Input to Glutamatergic and GABAergic Neurons in Motor Cortex

In this study, we used a monosynaptic rabies tracing technique to label the whole-brain inputs to specific cell types in the MOp and MOs simultaneously in a same transgenic mouse. First, 150 nl AAV helper mixtures were injected into the ipsilateral MOp (AP:1.54 mm, ML:1.70 mm, DV:-1.50 mm) and MOs (AP:1.54 mm, ML:0.50 mm, DV:-1.35 mm) in Thy1-cre or Vgat-cre mice respectively, mixed with rAAV2/9-Ef1α-DIO-BFP-2a-TVA-WPRE-pA and rAAV2/9-Ef1α-DIO-RG-WPRE-pA as the ratio of 1:2. Three weeks later, 300 nl RV-ΔG-EnVA-EGFP and RV-ΔG-EnVA-Dsred were injected into the two subregions of the MC respectively. One week later, the mice were perfused. The titer of both AAVs is 2.00E+12 vg/ml, while the titer of RV is 2.00E+8 IFU/ml. The virus used was produced by BrainVTA. The amplification origins of RVs were from SADΔG-EGFP (EnvA) (Wickersham et al., 2007b; Osakada et al., 2011). The AAV virus vectors were constructed by BrainVTA. The coding region of the TVA element and RG element were obtained from the AAV-EF1a-FLEX-GT plasmid (Addgene plasmid 26198) and pAAV-EF1a-FLEX-RG plasmid (Addgene plasmid 98221) respectively, and were separately constructed into the DIO cassette of the plasmid pAAV-EF1a-DIO-hChR2 (H134R)-EYFP (Addgene plasmid 20298) (Hu et al., 2016). During the stereotaxic injection, we set the Bregma as the zero point of the stereotactic coordinate. Briefly, Bregma is the junction of the coronal suture and the sagittal suture of the skull, and La...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Source: Biosensors and Bioelectronics - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of prolonged (28 days) treatment with dexamethasone or corticosterone on food intake and body weight gain in intact rats, both male and female. Also examined were Lee index, weights and area of adipocytes of retroperitoneal and perigonadal+perirenal adipose tissues, glucose tolerance test (GTT) and plasma concentrations of free fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides. Treatment with dexamethasone was able to increase body weight food intake, area of adipocytes and weight of retroperitoneal adipose tissue in males. Prolonged treatment with corticosterone al...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
, Casadó V Abstract Dopaminergic and purinergic signaling play a pivotal role in neurological diseases associated with motor symptoms, including Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington disease, Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), spinal cord injury (SCI), and ataxias. Extracellular dopamine and adenosine exert their functions interacting with specific dopamine (DR) or adenosine (AR) receptors, respectively, expressed on the surface of target cells. These receptors are members of the family A of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which is the largest protein superf...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research
orreguero D Abstract Our working hypothesis is that a hypoadenosinergic state is a main pathogenetic factor that determines the sensory-motor symptoms and hyperarousal of restless legs syndrome (RLS). We have recently demonstrated that brain iron deficiency (BID) in rodents, a well-accepted animal model of RLS, is associated with a generalized downregulation of adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) in the brain and with hypersensitivity of corticostriatal glutamatergic terminals. Here, we first review the experimental evidence for a pivotal role of adenosine and A1R in the control of striatal glutamatergic transmission and...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research
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Source: Advances in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research
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Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
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Source: Chinese Chemical Letters - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
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Source: Chinese Chemical Letters - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
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Source: RSC - New J. Chem. latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
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