Therapeutic Challenges of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: Focus on the Dopaminergic System

Conclusion Currently available pharmacotherapies for PTSD are poorly effective on a substantial proportion of patients. Given this high rate of pharmacological unresponsiveness, further studies are needed to extend the knowledge of the basic mechanisms associated with the pathophysiology of this disorder. The findings discussed in this review suggest that DAergic dysfunction, especially genetic-dependent DAergic alteration, plays a prominent role in the pathophysiology of PTSD; as a consequence, drugs targeting the DAergic system might be therapeutically relevant. A better understanding of how and which DAergic dysfunction contributes to the symptoms of PTSD patients with different genetic background may lead to the development of effective drugs and more personalized treatments. Author Contributions All authors listed have contributed to the work, by searching the literature, critical reading, and summarizing published data and writing this review. All authors listed have approved this review for publication. Funding This work was supported by Piano Triennale per la Ricerca – Linea Intervento 2, University of Catania, Italy. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. References Abraham, A. D., Cunningham, C. L., and Lattal, K. M. (2012). Methylphenidate enhances extinction of contextual fear. Learn. ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: As part of this sonographic assessment of the upper respiratory tract, landmarks could be identified in patients with OSA that correlated with the severity of the disease. PMID: 31119334 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: HNO - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: HNO Source Type: research
Double-wedge prism scanners are typically used for one-dimensional (1D) scanning in imaging systems. This type of scanner operates on the principle of two identical wedge prisms counter-rotating around the optical axis with identical angular velocity in order to move the image formed by the optical ...
Source: Applied Optics - Category: Physics Authors: Source Type: research
This study investigated what types of classroom anxiety were related to student performance in the course and persistence in the major. Students in introductory biology classes self-reported their general class, test, communication, and social anxiety; perceived course difficulty; intention to stay in the major; and demographic variables. Final course grades were acquired from instructors. An increase in perception of course difficulty from the beginning to the end of the semester was significantly associated with lower final course grades (N = 337), particularly for females, non-Caucasians, and students who took fewer Adv...
Source: CBE Life Sciences Education - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: CBE Life Sci Educ Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Fish &Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Ruiqiang Tang, Lingmin Zhao, Xiaojin Xu, Lixing Huang, Yingxue Qin, Yongquan Su, Qingpi YanAbstractAs an important pathogen in aquaculture, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida has caused heavy losses. The expression of an ABC transporter gene-L321_23611 of P. plecoglossicida at 18 °C was found significant higher than those at 28 °C by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR. RNAi significantly reduced the content of L321_23611 mRNA in P. plecoglossicida with a maximal decrease of 89.2%. Compared with the wild type strain, the infection of L321_2...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
In this study, Crassostrea angulata with different levels of Cu and Zn were obtained through metal exposure or selective breeding. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that oysters accumulating more Cu/Zn exhibited stronger antibacterial abilities. Vibrio harveyi infection significantly promoted the metal redistribution in oysters: Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in the mantle, but increased in the plasma and hemocytes. This redistribution was accompanied by changes in the expression levels of Cu and Zn transporter genes (CTR1, ATP7A, ZIP1, and ZNT2), suggesting that the Cu/Zn burst observed in the hemocytes was...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
This study indicates that dietary β-glucan supplement at 0.02%–0.04% can significantly improve digestibility, antioxidant capacity and immunity in L. vannamei, and thus improve growth performance and survival at low salinity. These beneficial effects of β-glucan probably are related to the dominance of probiotics over potential pathogens in the intestine.
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: Pharmacology Biochemistry and BehaviorAuthor(s): Inmaculada Banegas, Ana B. Segarra, Isabel Prieto, Francisco Vives, Marc de Gasparo, Raquel Duran, Juan de Dios Luna, Manuel Ramírez-SánchezAbstractAminopeptidase A is responsible for the hydrolysis of angiotensin II and cholecystokinin. By measuring its activity we obtain a reflection of the functional status of its endogenous substrates. Dopamine coexists with these neuropeptides in striatum and prefrontal cortex. If the content of any of them is altered, the others and the functions they are involved in w...
Source: Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: September 2019Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 55Author(s): Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hooman Bahrami-Motlagh, Sara Ahmadi, Scott PhillipsAbstractObjectivesOur study attempts to determine if for patients following ingestion of lead-contaminated opium, radiographs [plain X-ray (KUB)] or unenhanced computed tomography (CT scan) of the abdomen may be predictive of lead poisoning.MethodsOur study is concerned with patients of>21 years with elevated lead concentrations, who had undergone KUB or CT. Patients with other toxicities who had undergone similar imag...
Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Chemico-Biological InteractionsAuthor(s): Hang Zeng, Yiming Lin, Jiande Gong, Sisi Lin, Jianguo Gao, Chunxiao Li, Zemin Feng, Hong Zhang, Jie Zhang, Youming Li, Chaohui YuAbstractCytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity is inhibited, and its expression is suppressed during many diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the mechanism is controversial. Here, we report that PXR may not take part in the downregulation of CYP3A during NAFLD. Hepatic CYP3A11 (major subtype of mouse CYP3A) mRNA and protein expression was significantly decreased in both ...
Source: Chemico Biological Interactions - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: Chemico-Biological InteractionsAuthor(s): Tahira Javed, Rabia Habib, Sania Ghafoor, Baseerat Ruman, Sliha Awan, Leonel J.M. Ntepe, Sajida Batool, Syed M. NurulainAbstractSubstance addiction is a chronic, relapsing mental disorder Characterized by compulsive drug seeking, and loss of control over drug intake and relapse after prolonged abstinence. Genetics has been shown to contribute towards an individual's vulnerability to addiction. Acetylecholine (ACh), a cholinergic neurotransmitter hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE), is an essential neurotransmitter and neur...
Source: Chemico Biological Interactions - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
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