The Ins and Outs of Cerebral Malaria Pathogenesis: Immunopathology, Extracellular Vesicles, Immunometabolism, and Trained Immunity

Conclusion and Future Directions The ECM model has produced a wealth of information on CM pathogenesis in mice with the aim to find an adjunctive therapy for HCM but its validity has been questioned. However, several investigators have provided a critical and evidence-based defense of this model (17, 128–131) and from knowledge gained from it, numerous laboratories have tested preclinical therapeutic interventions. Many have demonstrated efficacy at blocking the development of ECM but disappointingly, in a majority of cases, this was only found when administered before or early post infection and prior to the onset of clinical neurological signs. Therefore, only a few can justify, as therapies, a large-scale evaluation in HCM. A rare case of efficacy of treatment even when administered after the onset of clinical signs in the ECM model is the injection of IMP (52). The only other studies to date having demonstrated treatment efficacy after the onset of ECM have targeted CD8+ T cell binding to endothelial cells, and finally, immunometabolism. These successes have renewed hopes that the mouse model of ECM will continue to bring novel ideas/concepts which then will need to be confirmed or infirmed in HCM. For example, the characterization of retinal pathology in ECM (132) and (133), which was followed by the demonstration of its usefulness in HCM (134–137) (and many others) or MRI findings of brain alterations, originally described in 2005 for ECM (97), and followed...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: A deterioration prediction model was developed using patient demographics, ward-based observations, laboratory values, and their trends. The model’s outputs were converted to a deterioration index that was successfully integrated into a live hospital electronic medical record. The sensitivity and specificity of the tool to detect inpatient deterioration were superior to traditional early warning scores.
Source: Critical Care Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research
No abstract available
Source: Critical Care Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Online Letters to the Editor Source Type: research
OBJECTIVES: We performed a comprehensive health assessment in mechanically ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 survivors to assess the impact of respiratory and skeletal muscle injury sustained during ICU stay on physical performance at 3 months following hospital discharge. DESIGN: Preregistered prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: University hospital ICU. PATIENTS: All mechanically ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 patients admitted to our ICU during the first European pandemic wave. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: At 3 months after hospital discharge, 46 survivors underwent a...
Source: Critical Care Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Clinical investigations Source Type: research
OBJECTIVES: Nonpharmaceutical interventions are implemented internationally to mitigate the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with the aim to reduce coronavirus disease 2019–related deaths and to protect the health system, particularly intensive care facilities from being overwhelmed. The aim of this study is to describe the impact of nonpharmaceutical interventions on ICU admissions of non–coronavirus disease 2019–related patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Analysis of all reported adult patient admissions to New Zealand ICUs during Level 3 and...
Source: Critical Care Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Clinical investigations Source Type: research
We examined the incidence and impact of early multiple organ dysfunction syndrome on clinical, functional, and disability outcomes over the year following traumatic brain injury. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Patients enrolled in the Transforming Clinical Research and Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury study, an 18-center prospective cohort study of traumatic brain injury patients evaluated in participating level 1 trauma centers. SUBJECTS: Adult (age> 17 yr) patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale
Source: Critical Care Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Neurologic Critical Care Source Type: research
AbstractCardiovascular disease (CVD) has long been the leading cause of death worldwide, and myocardial infarction (MI) accounts for the greatest proportion of CVD. Recent research has revealed that inflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of CVD and other manifestations of atherosclerosis. Overwhelming evidence supports the view that macrophages, as the basic cell component of the innate immune system, play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis initiation and progression. Limited but indispensable resident macrophages have been detected in the healthy heart; however, the number of cardiac macrophages significantly ...
Source: Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) carries a significant risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The prevalence of premature CVD is especially noteworthy because it occurs in premenopausal women with SLE who would otherwise have very low rates of CVD. While traditional risk factors likely play a role in development of CVD in the setting of SLE, they do not fully explain the excess risk. The pathogenesis of CVD in SLE is not fully understood, but the inflammatory nature of SLE is believed to be a key factor in accelerating atherosclerosis. Systemic inflammation may lead to an abnormal lipid profile with elevated trigl...
Source: Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractEndometritis in dairy cows is a major economic problem worldwide; without advances in lifestyle management and drug treatment, it causes high morbidity and death. Micro ribonucleic acid (miRNAs) these days is seen as an important part of gene control networks. It is a class of small nucleotides 20 –25, single-stranded RNA molecules. In endometritis, the inflammatory response caused by the gram-negative bacteriaEscherichia coli (E. coli) alters the expression of miRNA which can regulate the innate immune system. This manuscript reviews (1) the interaction of miRNAs with the signaling of NF- κB and dysreg...
Source: Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
If it hurts – take notice, and avoid it. Learn from it. If there are other people around, make sure your behaviour is noticeable so they take care of you and don’t do what you just did. If they look after you, you’ll probably do the same thing again when you hurt, if they don’t you probably won’t. This is one description of pain behaviour and how it works. It’s the only part of our pain experience that we can share directly with one another (actions and words). The “doing” part is also the part that is most affected by pain – even distress is signalled to others &nd...
Source: HealthSkills Weblog - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Chronic pain Clinical reasoning pain management Research Source Type: blogs
Joy Jackson is a nurse taking care of students at Wright State University. She's also pursuing her own bachelor’s degree in nursing as a student at Kettering College. Jackson is the clinical coordinator in Student Health Services at Wright State Physicians. She's also one of the Vaccine for Children coordinators for Wright State Physicians. Jackson is a 2021 Health Care Hero in the Patient Experience category. She works alongside two providers, Genessa Merritt, NP and Dr. Marc Raslich, to…
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines - Category: American Health Authors: Source Type: news
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