The Future of Flu: A Review of the Human Challenge Model and Systems Biology for Advancement of Influenza Vaccinology

Conclusions: Human challenge studies and systems biology approaches are important tools that should be used in concert to advance our understanding of influenza infection and provide targets for novel therapeutics and immunizations. Introduction Although influenza virus was recognized as an important pathogen over a century ago, influenza continues to cause a significant burden of disease. In the United States alone, it's estimated that in the 2017–2018 season there were 959,000 hospitalizations related to influenza illness, and 79,400 deaths (CDC, 2018). Worldwide, WHO estimates that annual influenza epidemics cause 3–5 million cases of severe disease, with 290,000–650,000 of these severe cases resulting in death (Influenza (Seasonal), 2018). Although annual influenza immunizations are recommended and antivirals are available, both have several limitations. The efficacy of the seasonal influenza vaccine is compromised by several factors: antigenic changes over time (requiring a strain specific match each year), slow manufacturing processing, vaccine strain egg-adapted changes, short duration of protection, lack of cross-reactivity, and poor immunogenicity in certain populations (e.g., the elderly) (Goodwin et al., 2006; Soema et al., 2015; Raymond et al., 2016). Antiviral agents such as neuraminidase inhibitors are most effective if administered early in the disease course, and even then have only a modest impact upon the duration of clinica...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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In this study, structural proteins of MERS-CoV were expressed in silkworm larvae and Bm5 cells for the development of vaccine candidates against MERS-CoV and diagnostic methods. The spike (S) protein of MERS-CoV lacking its transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains (SοTM) was secreted into the hemolymph of silkworm larvae using a bombyxin signal peptide and purified using affinity chromatography. The purified SοTM forms small nanoparticles as well as the full-length S protein and has the ability to bind human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), which is a receptor of MERS-CoV. These results indicate that bioactive S...
Source: Journal of Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: November 2019Source: Fish &Shellfish Immunology, Volume 94Author(s): Jing Wang, Jia-Jia Du, Biao Jiang, Run-Zhen He, An-Xing LiAbstractShort-term feed deprivation or fasting is commonly experienced by aquaculture fish species and may be caused by seasonal variations, production strategies, or diseases. To assess the effects of fasting on the resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus agalactiae infection, vaccinated and unvaccinated fish were fasted for zero, one, three, and seven days prior to infection. The cortisol levels of both vaccinated and unvaccinated fish first decreased and then increased ...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
ConclusionIn our study, the Met-allele was associated with higher stress levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating this area. The findings from this study should trigger more investigators to focus on the impact of stress, due to the potential effects of these genes, on medical students.
Source: Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2019Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related DisordersAuthor(s): Shahin Khayambashi, Amber Salter, Tuula Tyry, Gary R Cutter, Robert J Fox, Ruth Ann MarrieAbstractObjectiveWe aimed to determine the association between gender identity and sexual orientation on healthcare-related utilization in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as satisfaction with their doctor and comfort discussing sexual health with their doctor.MethodsWe surveyed participants from the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry regarding their gender identity and sexua...
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionsAlpha-synchronized rTMS of left DLPFC is feasible, safe and has specific single-session neuromodulatory effects in patients with antidepressant-resistant MDD. Future studies need to further elucidate the mechanisms, optimize the parameters and investigate the therapeutic potential and efficacy of brain oscillation-synchronized rTMS in MDD.
Source: Brain Stimulation - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of gross tumor morphology on clinicopathological profile of CRCs in Kashmiri population.MethodsThis 5-year study is a prospective (2 yrs) and retrospective (3 yrs) study conducted from 2011 to 2016 in the Colorectal Surgery Division at Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar, Kashmir, India. Parameters studied were age, sex, site of lesion, clinical presentations, gross tumor morphology, and histopathology of the lesion.ResultsA total of 930 patients with CRC were included. Infiltrative variety was the most common morphology in patients aged 1...
Source: Current Medicine Research and Practice - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
We report a case of an infected chylothorax occurring in a post-cardiac surgery patient caused bySerratia marcescens. Once considered a harmless saprophyte,Serratia marcescens is now recognized as an important opportunistic pathogen causing healthcare-associated infection with a propensity for antimicrobial resistance.
Source: Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
ConclusionPulmonary metastasectomy for lesions originating from head and neck provides good long-term survival. Histological subtype was the only statistically significant prognostic factor.
Source: Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
This study aimed to compare short- and long-term results for patients undergoing either aortic valve-sparing reimplantation (David) procedure (AVr-D) or biological aortic root replacement (Bentall) procedure (ARr-B-bio) for aortic root pathology.MethodsWe compared outcomes for patients who underwent AVr-D (n = 261) or ARr-B-bio (n = 150) between 2000 and 2015 at our institution. The mean age of patients was 55 ± 13 years and 21.7% (n = 89) were female. ARr-B-bio patients were significantly older than AVr-D patients (58 ± 10 vs 53&thins...
Source: Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
João A. P. Coutinho It was recently shown that tetramethylammonium chloride presented negative deviations to ideality when mixed with tetraethylammonium chloride or tetrapropylammonium chloride, leading to a strong decrease of the melting points of these salt mixtures, in a behavior akin to that observed in the formation of deep eutectic solvents. To better rationalize this unexpected melting point depression between two structurally similar compounds devoid of dominant hydrogen bonding capability, new solid–liquid equilibria data for tetramethylammonium-based systems were measured and analyzed in this...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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