Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia: Genetic and Neuroimaging Correlates

Conclusion and Future Perspectives Although interesting data have come from pharmacogenetics, neuroimaging and the interaction of both fields of study, few converging findings are available that describe the antipsychotic treatment response and resistance mechanisms in schizophrenia (DeLisi and Fleischhacker, 2016). Based on the available evidence, the results from both neuroimaging and pharmacogenetic/pharmacogenomic studies point to an overlap in the neurobiological vulnerability risk factors influencing the antipsychotic drug response in schizophrenia and the risk factors underlying schizophrenia itself. Currently for TRS, not a single biological marker, both coming from neuroimaging or genetic studies, is available. Indeed, all researches carried out to date did not provide findings with strong requisites of reproducibility, specificity, robustness as well as clinical feasibility and cost-effectiveness. Consequently, it is difficult to delineate a model of pharmaco-resistance and a clear pathogenetic hypothesis. Several reasons are to address: (1) the definition of resistance for schizophrenia is still lack of a definitive consensus; (2) few studies are available on TRS and most are on clozapine. As in our review, we refereed mainly to non-response mechanisms that could be partly overlying the aetiopathogenesis of resistance; (3) most data come from a priori hypotheses studies focused on well-known pathways; (4) several methodological limitations in the existing literatu...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Related Links:

Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): Asseged Dibaba
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Journal of Physics and Chemistry of SolidsAuthor(s): D. Alburquenque, L. Troncoso, J.C. Denardin, J.F. Marco, J.L. GautierAbstractManganese nickel oxides with a spinel-related structure, NixMn3-xO4-δ (x = 0.5 or 0.75), were synthesized by an ultrasound-assisted sol-gel method. Inductively coupled plasma atomic optical emission spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed good agreement with the nominal oxide compositions. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray data indicated that both Ni0.5Mn2.5O4-δ and Ni0.75Mn2.25O4-δ cryst...
Source: Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids - Category: Physics Source Type: research
Authors: Vigna L, Morelli F, Agnelli GM, Napolitano F, Ratto D, Occhinegro A, Di Iorio C, Savino E, Girometta C, Brandalise F, Rossi P Abstract Epidemiological data indicate that subjects affected by obesity have an increased risk of developing mood disorders. The relationship between obesity and mood disorders is bidirectional. We assessed whether a Hericium erinaceus treatment improved depression, anxiety, sleep, and binge eating disorders after 8 weeks of supplementation in subjects affected by overweight or obesity under a low calorie diet regimen. Looking for a possible clinical biomarker, we assessed the seru...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Authors: Zhang J, Zhang Z, Zhang J, Zhong Z, Yao Z, Qu S, Huang Y Abstract Electroacupuncture (EA) is considered a complementary therapy for depression. Trials also found that EA has additive benefits when combined with medication compared with medication alone. It is revealed that EA restores altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity in depressed brain. But precise molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of EA and EA combined with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on depressed (CUMS) rats. Then a new proteomics approach, isobaric tag for relative and absolute ...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Molecular Phylogenetics and EvolutionAuthor(s): Sandeep Sen, Selvadurai Dayanandan, Thomson Davis, Rengaian Ganesan, M.R. Jagadish, P.J. Mathew, Gudasalamani RavikanthAbstractThe evolution of Peninsular Indian biodiversity has been a fascinating topic of research due to historical connections of this region to the ancient Gondwanaland. We investigated the phylogeny and historical biogeography of nearly all extant species of the genus Piper reported from the region to assess the biogeographical origins and test mechanisms of lineage diversification (dispersal, vicariance...
Source: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Journal of Molecular StructureAuthor(s): O. Secundino-Sánchez, J. Diaz-Reyes, J. Aguila-López, J.F. Sánchez-RamírezAbstractIn this work reports the crystalline phase transformation of electrospinning TiO2 nanofibres by annealing at high temperatures. The nanofibres chemical stoichiometry was determined by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), which allowed find that the TiO2 crystal phase transformation is caused by oxygen vacancy generating. The TiO2 nanofibres diameter varied from 137.0 to 115.3 nm in the temperature range of 100-1000...
Source: Journal of Molecular Structure - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
In this study, the morphology of an immiscible polymer blend system at various regions of interests was analyzed using different microanalytical methods with varying surface sensitivities. As a model immiscible polymer blend, a HDPE/PP (80/20 wt%) polymer film was used. The blend film was subjected to polarized light microscopy (PLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The obtained results were compared regarding the sensitivities, informational values and overall applicability of the...
Source: Micron - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Fish &Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Xiaobing Liu, Xuemei Li, Meiting Peng, Xuangang Wang, Xinxin Du, Lihui Meng, Jieming Zhai, Jinxiang Liu, Haiyang Yu, Quanqi ZhangAbstractC-type lectin is a type of carbohydrate-binding protein and plays significant roles in innate immune response against pathogen infection. To date, thousands of C-type lectin had been identified in teleost. In the present study, we isolated a novel isoform of C-type lectin (OppCTL) from spotted knifejaw (Oplegnathus punctatus). The OppCTL encoded a typical Ca2+-dependent carbohydrate-binding prot...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Chemico-Biological InteractionsAuthor(s): Yingzhuan Zhan, Nan Ma, Rui Liu, Nan Wang, Tao Zhang, Langchong HeAbstractPolymyxin B (PMB) and polymyxin E (PME) are cyclic, peptide antibiotics which derived from various species of Paenibacillus (Bacillus) polymyxa. They are decapeptide antibiotics with an antimicrobial spectrum that includes Gram-negative bacteria, and reused as therapeutic agents due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-positive bacteria. PMB or PME-induced anaphylactoid reactions in the clinic have been documented. However, the mechanism unde...
Source: Chemico Biological Interactions - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
In this study a novel biocomposite based on the enzyme monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) immobilized by covalent binding on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) has been developed for detection of serotonin. Immobilized MAO-A (MWCNT/MAO-A) retained 94.3 % of its catalytic activity, showing good thermal and pH stability at temperatures from 35 - 40 °C and pH from 7- 8.5. A decrease of the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant was observed compared to free MAO-A indicating an improvement of its affinity towards its substrate. Evaluation of MWCNT/MAO-A by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) demonstrated that the imm...
Source: Biochemical Engineering Journal - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
More News: Addiction | Anxiety | Brain | Burns | Calcium | Cerebellum | Child Development | Clinical Trials | CT Scan | Databases & Libraries | Depression | Drugs & Pharmacology | Epidemiology | Genetics | Hyperactivity | India Health | Italy Health | Legislation | Men | Molecular Biology | MRI Scan | Neurology | Neuroscience | Perfusion | PET Scan | Potassium | Psychiatry | Risperdal Consta | Schizophrenia | SPECT | Sports Medicine | Statistics | Study | Zyprexa