Turning the Tide Against Regulatory T Cells

In this study, T cells deficient in TRAF6 display enhanced T cell activation, CD28-indpendent stimulation and resistance to Treg cell-mediated suppression (176). Although TLR signaling can promote T cell resistance to Treg cells, the precise molecular mechanism remains yet to be elucidated. It is worth noting that TLR stimulation of T cells increases cytokine production (173, 177), thus future studies should delineate the effect of TLR-MyD88 signaling vs. subsequently induced cytokines in generating resistance to Treg cells. Lastly, it is also crucial to evaluate the effect of TLR signaling on regulatory T cells which also express TLRs (170). The role of TLR signaling on Treg cell function requires further investigation and clarification since it can both abrogate and enhance Treg cell functions (170, 177–179). A recent study suggested that TLR signaling on regulatory T cells induces PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 signaling which subsequently increases glycolysis and GLUT1 expression, which in turn interferes with FoxP3 expression and the suppressive ability of Treg cells (180). However, increased Treg cell function observed in several studies could also occur indirectly as a result of enhanced T cell stimulation and IL-2 secretion, which can subsequently promote Treg cell function. Although TLR agonists can improve anti-tumor immune responses by enhancing T cell function and/or stimulating APC maturation, they may also act on other immune cells and cancer cells to impact anti-tumor ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Stimulation of Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptor Ameliorates Cellular Functions of Multiorgans beyond Vasomotion through PPARδ. PPAR Res. 2020;2020:3785137 Authors: Lee YJ, Kim HS, Seo HS, Na JO, Jang YN, Han YM, Kim HM Abstract Cells can shift their metabolism between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to enact their cell fate program in response to external signals. Widely distributed α 1-adrenergic receptors (ARs) are physiologically stimulated during exercise, were reported to associate with the activating energetic AMPK pathway, and are expected to have biological effects beyond their h...
Source: PPAR Research - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research
Abstract Synaptic transmission and plasticity are shaped by the dynamic reorganization of signaling molecules within pre- and postsynaptic compartments. The nanoscale organization of key effector molecules has been revealed by single-particle trajectory (SPT) methods. Interestingly, this nanoscale organization is highly heterogeneous. For example, presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and postsynaptic ligand-gated ion channels such as AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are organized into so-called nanodomains where individual molecules are only transiently trapped. These pre- and postsynaptic nanodomains are cha...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research
Conclusion: CAM practice and herb consumption were highly prevalent among patients with CKD. Patients inadequately inform the primary physicians about their CAM practices. Therefore, healthcare providers are encouraged to inquire about these practices. PMID: 32099440 [PubMed]
Source: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis Source Type: research
Authors: Shabataev V, Saadat SH, Elterman DS Abstract The two major long-term concerns associated with different options for the management of prostate cancer, (including surgery, radiotherapy, brachytherapy, cryotherapy, HIFU, etc.) include difficulties with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and/or erectile dysfunction. LUTS can be in the form of stress urinary incontinence (SUI), urge urinary incontinence (UUI), frequency/urgency, and/or voiding difficulties. While surgery is mostly associated with SUI and radiation mostly results in UUI, there can be an overlap. Incontinence rates after cryotherapy and high in...
Source: Canadian Journal of Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Can J Urol Source Type: research
Authors: Magee DE, Singal RK Abstract Our objective is to provide an up-to-date summary of current literature on the indications for androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), ways in which ADT is used, and the main side effects associated with its use. MEDLINE (Pubmed) was searched for relevant papers published from database inception to May 1, 2019 for studies evaluating the use of ADT and its associated adverse events. ADT is a mainstay in the treatment of prostate cancer and is used throughout the disease course. While predominantly used in the metastatic setting, ADT has a role in the treatment of localized disease a...
Source: Canadian Journal of Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Can J Urol Source Type: research
Authors: Law KW, Nguyen DD, Barkin J, Zorn KC Abstract Prostate cancer screening remains highly controversial in medicine. The College of Family Physicians of Canada currently endorses positions that recommend against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in men of all ages, while the Canadian Urological Association recommends shared and informed decision making for PSA screening in men 50-70 years old. Unfortunately, these opposing stances have left Family Physicians responsible for interpreting the appropriate course of action for their patients. Recent studies demonstrating an increase in incidence of metast...
Source: Canadian Journal of Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Can J Urol Source Type: research
Authors: Barkin J PMID: 32101693 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Canadian Journal of Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Can J Urol Source Type: research
This article is categorized under: Biological Mechanisms> Metabolism Translational, Genomic, and Systems Medicine> Translational Medicine Biological Mechanisms> Cell Signaling
Source: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Systems Biology and Medicine - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: ADVANCED REVIEW Source Type: research
Contributors : Lu Xin ; Liu GuoqiangSeries Type : Expression profiling by arrayOrganism : Mus musculusMyeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells with differentiation program partially blocked in pathological conditions such as cancer. Through inhibition of T cells especially cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), MDSCs play important tumor-promoting roles and maintain a state of immunological anergy and toleranceWe used microarrays to profile gene expression of Gr-MDSC and identified differentially altered genes under different drug treatment.
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Mus musculus Source Type: research
In this study, a versatile reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based drug delivery system (DDS) was developed for... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - New J. Chem. latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
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