Turning the Tide Against Regulatory T Cells
In this study, T cells deficient in TRAF6 display enhanced T cell activation, CD28-indpendent stimulation and resistance to Treg cell-mediated suppression (176). Although TLR signaling can promote T cell resistance to Treg cells, the precise molecular mechanism remains yet to be elucidated. It is worth noting that TLR stimulation of T cells increases cytokine production (173, 177), thus future studies should delineate the effect of TLR-MyD88 signaling vs. subsequently induced cytokines in generating resistance to Treg cells. Lastly, it is also crucial to evaluate the effect of TLR signaling on regulatory T cells which also express TLRs (170). The role of TLR signaling on Treg cell function requires further investigation and clarification since it can both abrogate and enhance Treg cell functions (170, 177–179). A recent study suggested that TLR signaling on regulatory T cells induces PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 signaling which subsequently increases glycolysis and GLUT1 expression, which in turn interferes with FoxP3 expression and the suppressive ability of Treg cells (180). However, increased Treg cell function observed in several studies could also occur indirectly as a result of enhanced T cell stimulation and IL-2 secretion, which can subsequently promote Treg cell function. Although TLR agonists can improve anti-tumor immune responses by enhancing T cell function and/or stimulating APC maturation, they may also act on other immune cells and cancer cells to impact anti-tumor ...
Publication date: 2019Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 46Author(s): Surendra Gulla, Dakshayani Lomada, Vadali V.S.S. Srikanth, Muthukonda Venkatakrishnan Shankar, Kakarla Raghava Reddy, Sarvesh Soni, Madhava C. ReddyAbstractNanoparticles' based cancer therapeutics are greatly dependent on the development of science and engineering of nanoparticles. In this article, important strategies based on nanoparticles used for cancer treatment are discussed. The inspiration to write this article is not only to review the existing strategies based on nanoparticles but also to highlight the pertinent and possible solutions ther...
Publication date: 2019Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 46Author(s): Aaron Elbourne, Vi Khanh Truong, Samuel Cheeseman, Piumie Rajapaksha, Sheeana Gangadoo, James Chapman, Russell J. CrawfordAbstractAntimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been identified as one of the greatest threats to human health (Boucher et al., 2009, Bush et al., 2011, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013, Neu, 1992, Spellberg et al., 2008). Unfortunately, the current rise in AMR has made biofilm-related infections a primary health-care concern, since these biofilms can no longer be effectively treated using conventional antibiotic metho...
ConclusionNo significant difference was found in the clinical manifestations, mortality, and complication between children and adults but children tended to have lesser chance of using alternative antibiotics, methylprednisolone and inhaled NO. The chance of associated cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease was also significantly lower in children.
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2019Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Lamia Abou El-Kassem, Usama W. Hawas, Sahar El-Souda, Eman F. Ahmed, Wail El-Khateeb, Walid FayadAbstractForty-eight endophytic fungal strains were isolated and purified from ten Egyptian medicinal plants and their culture broth extracts were explored for HCV protease inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity. The ethyl acetate extracts of Alternaria alternata PGL-3, Cochlibolus lunatus PML-17, Nigrospora sphaerica EPS-38, followed by Emerecilla nidulans RPL-21 showed the most potent inhibition of HCV NS3/4A protease with...
PMID: 31109507 [PubMed - in process]
PMID: 31109506 [PubMed - in process]
PMID: 31109505 [PubMed - in process]
PMID: 31109504 [PubMed - in process]
PMID: 31109503 [PubMed - in process]
PMID: 31109502 [PubMed - in process]
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