Altered Lipidome Composition Is Related to Markers of Monocyte and Immune Activation in Antiretroviral Therapy Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and in Uninfected Persons

Conclusions: The lipidome is altered in ART-treated HIV infection, and may contribute to inflammation and CVD progression. Detailed lipidomic analyses may better assess CVD risk in both HIV+ and HIV– individuals than does traditional lipid profiling. Introduction Both HIV infection and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) contribute to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) (1, 2). Dyslipidemia is observed in HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals, and is associated with reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and elevated total (TC) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG). Similar lipid abnormalities have been linked to the development of atherosclerosis in the general population (3), however, these basic lipid assessments may not sufficiently evaluate CVD risk in HIV+ individuals (4). Advances in quantitative mass spectrometry-based lipid analyses allow for more sensitive and extensive assessments of the lipidome (5). Lipids have diverse biological roles, including signal transduction, protein trafficking, and regulation of membrane permeability (6). The physiological importance of lipids is underscored by the various diseases associated with lipid abnormalities, including CVD, obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and Alzheimer's disease, many of which are increased in HIV infection (7–12). Moreover, the fatty acid co...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 14 October 2019Source: Canadian Journal of CardiologyAuthor(s): Ramiro Lizano Santamaria, Aamir Jeewa, Ari Cedars, Holger Buchholz, Jennifer ConwayAbstractThe use of ventricular assist device (VAD) support continues to increase and it is now considered part of the standard of care for most adult and children with end stage heart failure unresponsive to medical management. However, the application of VAD therapy in both the pediatric and adult population with congenital heart disease (CHD) has been less extensive and continues to face significant challenges. Nevertheless, the experience is...
Source: Canadian Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, compared with placebo, Brazilian propolis supplementation did not influence the risk of atopic sensitization in infants and neither did it improve nor worsen nonspecific symptoms in either mothers or their infants. PMID: 31611924 [PubMed]
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
PMID: 31609194 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Public Health Nutrition - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Public Health Nutr Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: Stem Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Candice Ashmore-Harris, Samuel JI Blackford, Benjamin Grimsdell, Ewelina Kurtys, Marlies C Glatz, Tamir S Rashid, Gilbert O FruhwirthAbstractPrimary hepatocyte transplantation (HTx) is a safe cell therapy for patients with liver disease, but wider application is circumvented by poor cell engraftment due to limitations in hepatocyte quality and transplantation strategies. Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) are considered a promising alternative but also require optimisation of transplant...
Source: Stem Cell Research - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: Stem Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Lin Zhang, Mei Xu, Gang Liu, Rongrong Wu, Shulin Meng, Kang Xiahou, Ning Jiang, Yongxiang Zhang, Wenxia ZhouAbstractA 62-year old sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD) male patient with APOE3 (ε3/ε3) genotype donated his peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line was established by episomal vector system with the four factors OCT4, SOX2, C-MYC and KLF4. EB differentiation in vitro showed that iPSC line had a potential to differentiate into three germ layers. More than 90% cells ...
Source: Stem Cell Research - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
We report a novel pH-sensitive multi-compartmental nanoparticulate (MCP) oral delivery system that encapsulates siRNA for silencing the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) gene, a primary iron transporter highly expressed in the intestine. The gelatin nanoparticles-coated with Eudragit® L100–55 are able to protect siRNA from intracellular degradation and allow for sustained release of siRNA in the cytosol. When orally-administered, Eudragit® L100–55 based MCPs containing DMT1 siRNA/gelatin NPs specifically and significantly decreased the expression of DMT1 mRNA in the duodenum, which consequently decrea...
Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Membrane Science - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Journal of Materials Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): M.A. Morsi, A.H. Oraby, A.G. Elshahawy, R.M. Abd El-HadyAbstractPolymer nanocomposite samples have been prepared through the solution casting method utilizing a polymer blend of polyvinyl alcohol and carboxymethyl cellulose (70/30 wt.%) as organic host matrix and different concentrations of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) by the leaf extract of green mint (Mentha Spicata L.) as inorganic nanofiller. The structural, optical and morphological properties of these samples have been through FT-IR, XRD...
Source: Journal of Materials Research and Technology - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Observation of drug administration procedure steps via central venous catheter according to the treatment hours showed that the nurses performed many incomplete or inaccurate drug administration procedure steps and the mistakes increased toward the evening hours. PMID: 31612769 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Vascular Access - Category: Surgery Tags: J Vasc Access Source Type: research
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Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
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