Are we there yet? The never-ending quest for an Epstein-Barr virus vaccine

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is estimated to infect a large part of the population and is associated with a variety of human tumors; therefore, EBV is an important target for vaccine development. In this issue of the JCI, Rühl et al. developed a promising heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy for EBV-associated malignancies and symptomatic primary infection. The authors show that two prime-boost regimens, using either dendritic cells or an adenovirus approach targeting nuclear antigen EBNA1 followed by a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) booster, induced significant T cell–mediated, EBV-specific immune control and Ab production. These findings suggest that administration of heterologous prime-boost vaccinations targeting EBNA1 may result in potent CD4+ and CD8+ T cell–mediated EBV immune control and may be a promising clinical approach.
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research

Related Links:

In conclusion, our research provides a candidate vaccine for the prevention of Aeromonas salmonicida A450 infection in rainbow trout and lays the foundation for future research on adaptive immune mechanisms associated with rainbow trout antibodies.
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Contributors : Steven Tuyishime ; Larissa H Haut ; Raj K Kurupati ; James M Billingsley ; Diane Carnathan ; Zhi Q Xiang ; Yan Li ; Malte Zopfs ; Qin Liu ; Xiang Y Zhou ; Mark G Lewis ; Steven Bosinger ; Guido Silvestri ; Hildegund C ErtlichollSeries Type : Expression profiling by arrayOrganism : Macaca mulattaAn efficacious vaccine to HIV-1 remains elusive. We tested two vaccine regimens based on prime-boosting with two chimpanzee-origin adenovirus (Ad) vectors (SAdV) of serotypes SAdV24 and SAdV23 or two distinct human serotype Ad vectors (HAdV), i.e., HAdV5 and HAdV26, expressing Gag and gp160 of SIVmac239 for induction ...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Macaca mulatta Source Type: research
Abstract Adenoviral vectors have been widely used for the development of infectious disease vaccines. However, the challenge of human adenoviral vector rooted from the predominant adenovirus serotype 5 strain limiting its usefulness by the widespread pre-existing neutralizing antibodies in recipients. To circumvent this obstacle, we generated an ad-hoc adenovirus vector in human or primates. Here, a chimeric simian adenoviral vector Sad23 was constructed consisting in deleting of E1 and E3 regions of the full-length simian adenovirus serotype 23 genome (SAdV23) by Gibson assembly. To improve Sad23 virus propagatin...
Source: Virus Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The diarrhea severity reduction in children provides evidence that the rotavirus vaccination program in the northwest of Mexico has been successful, even among children infected by the rotavirus emergent strain G12, however, norovirus resulted as the leading severe gastroenteritis-causing agent in children with rotavirus vaccine. PMID: 31063865 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
eaver Adenovirus type 7 (Ad7) infection is associated with acute respiratory disease (ARD), especially in military recruits living in close quarters. Recently, several outbreaks of Ad7 infections have occurred in civilian populations, with some cases leading to death. However, the current Ad7 vaccine is licensed for use only in military recruits because it utilizes an orally delivered wild type virus which is shed in the stool for 28 days after immunization. This poses a safety risk due to the possibility of virus spread to vulnerable populations. To address the need for a safer Ad7 vaccine for use in civilian populati...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Antonella Riccomi1, Giovanni Piccaro2, Dennis Christensen3, Carla Palma1, Peter Andersen3 and Silvia Vendetti1* 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy 2Notified Body, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy 3Department of Infectious Diseases Immunology, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark Most microbes invading through mucosal surfaces cause disease and therefore strategies to induce mucosal immune responses are strongly needed. Vitamin A metabolites, such as retinoic acid (RA), play crucial roles in programming T and B cells to home to mucosal compa...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Mark K. Slifka1* and Ian J. Amanna2 1Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health &Science University, Beaverton, OR, United States2Najít Technologies, Inc., Beaverton, OR, United States Vaccines play a vital role in protecting our communities against infectious disease. Unfortunately, some vaccines provide only partial protection or in some cases vaccine-mediated immunity may wane rapidly, resulting in either increased susceptibility to that disease or a requirement for more booster vaccinations in order to maintain immunity above a protective level. The durability of a...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Michal Yalon1†, Amos Toren1,2†, Dina Jabarin2, Edna Fadida3, Shlomi Constantini3 and Ruty Mehrian-Shai1* 1Pediatric Hemato-Oncology, Edmond and Lilly Safra Children's Hospital and Cancer Research Center, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel 3Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel-Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumor type and the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. The immune system plays an important r...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Reena Goswami1, Gayatri Subramanian2, Liliya Silayeva1, Isabelle Newkirk1, Deborah Doctor1, Karan Chawla2, Saurabh Chattopadhyay2, Dhyan Chandra3, Nageswararao Chilukuri1 and Venkaiah Betapudi1,4* 1Neuroscience Branch, Research Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen, MD, United States 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, United States 3Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, United States 4Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Clev...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
More News: Adenoviruses | Biomedical Science | Cancer & Oncology | Vaccines