Need to Inject Then Infect a Human to Test Hep C Vaccine Need to Inject Then Infect a Human to Test Hep C Vaccine

Hepatitis C will not be eradicated without a vaccine, and an effective vaccine needs a challenge test in healthy humans, experts say.Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Gastroenterology News Source Type: news

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This study indicates that targeting of epitopes by human adaptive immunity is to some extent directed by defined thermodynamic principles. The proposed framework also has a practical implication in that it may enable to more efficiently prioritize epitope candidates highly prone to T cell recognition in multiple individuals, warranting prospective validation across different cohorts. Introduction T cell epitopes bound to major histocompatibility complex [MHC; also called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in humans] molecules activate T cells to initiate subsequent immunological orchestration (1–3). MHC class ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
About 71 million people worldwide suffer from chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Without available treatment the large majority of HCV-infected patients progress to chronic disease. Chronic HCV infection is one of the most important risk factors for liver disease, including liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite the development of efficient direct-acting antivirals with success rates of more than 95%, HCV incidence rates are still increasing, which is in part due to the ongoing opioid epidemic that is currently taking its toll in the US.
Source: Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated ATA as a potential antiviral drug against ZIKV replication. The antiviral activity of ATA against ZIKV replication in vitro showed median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 13.87 ± 1.09 μM and 33.33 ± 1.13 μM in Vero and A549 cells, respectively; without showing any cytotoxic effect in both cell lines (median cytotoxic concentration (CC50)> 1,000 μM). Moreover, ATA protected both cell types from ZIKV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, pre-treatment of Vero cells with ATA for up to 72 h also resulted...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Tapas Kumar Nayak1†, Prabhudutta Mamidi2, Subhransu Sekhar Sahoo1, P. Sanjai Kumar1, Chandan Mahish1, Sanchari Chatterjee2, Bharat Bhusan Subudhi3, Soma Chattopadhyay2 and Subhasis Chattopadhyay1* 1School of Biological Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, HBNI, Bhubaneswar, India2Infectious Disease Biology, Institute of Life Sciences, Bhubaneswar, India3School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha O Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, India Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne Alphavirus, is endemic in different parts of the globe. The host macrophages are identified as the maj...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Christine I. Alston1,2 and Richard D. Dix1,2* 1Department of Biology, Viral Immunology Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, United States 2Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins provide selective negative feedback to prevent pathogeneses caused by overstimulation of the immune system. Of the eight known SOCS proteins, SOCS1 and SOCS3 are the best studied, and systemic deletion of either gene causes early lethality in mice. Many viruses, including herpesviruses such as herpes simplex virus and cytomega...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that in the presence of an HIV-1 infection, the cellular distribution of FcγRIIIa is altered and that the functional consequence of FcγRIIIa variant is affected. Importantly, it underscores the need to characterize FcγR expression, cellular distribution and functional consequences of FcγR genetic variants within a specific environment or disease state. Introduction Receptors for the Fc domain of immunoglobulin G (IgG), so called Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs), link the specificity of IgG with potent effector functions of the innate immune system. Fc&ga...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the immunological changes in the levels of monocytes and Tregs and the associations between these cell types in HIV-1-infected MSM with syphilis. Methods Study Participants We enrolled 81 participants in this study. These individuals were assigned to four groups on the basis of serologic testing and HIV-1 results, namely, the rapid plasma reagin (RPR+) group, the CHI group, the CHI&RPR+ group, and the healthy control group. HIV-1 infection status was determined with the HIV-1/2 antigen/antibody combo enzyme immunoassay (Beijing Wantai Biological Medical Company, Beijing, China). Positive ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The modeling results underscore the importance of developing an effective HCV vaccine and augmenting DAAs with vaccines in HCV intervention strategies in order to achieve efficient reductions in incidence and prevalence. PMID: 30962092 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Zelalem A. Mekonnen, Branka Grubor-Bauk, Makutiro G. Masavuli, Ashish C. Shrestha, Charani Ranasinghe, Rowena A. Bull, Andrew R. Lloyd, Eric J. Gowans, Danushka K. Wijesundara
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our results confirmed that a vaccination approach could facilitate diagnosis of chronic HBV infection in the presence of isolated anti-HBc. If it were not for a family outbreak of hepatitis A, this unexpected family HBV focus would not have been revealed.
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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