Depletion of microglia immediately following traumatic brain injury in the pediatric rat: Implications for cellular and behavioral pathology.

Depletion of microglia immediately following traumatic brain injury in the pediatric rat: Implications for cellular and behavioral pathology. Exp Neurol. 2019 Apr 10;: Authors: Hanlon LA, Raghupathi R, Huh JW Abstract The inflammatory response is a significant component of the pathophysiology of pediatric traumatic brain injury. High levels of inflammatory mediators have been found in the cerebrospinal fluid of brain-injured children which have been linked to poor prognosis. Targeting aspects of the inflammatory response in the hopes of finding a viable post-injury therapeutic option has gained attention. Microglia are largely responsible for perpetuating the injury-induced inflammatory response but in the developing brain they play beneficial roles in both normal and disease states. Following closed head injury in the neonate rat, depletion of microglia with intracerebral injections of liposomes containing clodronate was associated with an increase in neurodegeneration in the early post-injury period (3 days) relative to those injected with empty liposomes suggestive of a decrease in clearance of dying cells. In sham-injured animals, microglia repopulated the clodrosome-mediated depleted brain regions over a period of 2-4 weeks and exhibited morphology typical of a resting phenotype. In brain-injured animals, the repopulated microglia in clodrosome-injected animals exhibited rod-like and amoeboid morphologies. However, fluoro-Jade B reactivity in th...
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

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Publication date: 14 September 2019Source: New Scientist, Volume 243, Issue 3247Author(s): Alice Klein
Source: New Scientist - Category: Science Source Type: research
Abstract Head injury is a growing concern within contact sports, including American football. Computational tools such as finite element (FE) models provide an avenue for researchers to study, and potentially optimize safety tools, such as helmets. The goal of this study was to develop an accurate representative helmet model that could be used in further study of head injury to mitigate the toll of concussions in contact sports. An FE model of a Schutt Air XP Pro football helmet was developed through three major steps: geometry development, material characterization, and model validation. The fully assembled helme...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research
AbstractNeurocognitive impairment (NCI) among HIV-infected patients is heterogeneous in its reported presentations and frequencies. To determine the prevalence of NCI and its associated subtypes as well as predictive variables, we investigated patients with HIV/AIDS receiving universal health care. Recruited adult HIV-infected subjects underwent a neuropsychological (NP) test battery with established normative (sex-, age-, and education-matched) values together with assessment of their demographic and clinical variables. Three patient groups were identified including neurocognitively normal (NN,n = 246), HIV-...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
The objective of the present work is to in...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The authors previously demonstrated that Cerebrolysin is effective for treatment of mild closed head injury (CHI) when administered 4 hours after injury. The aim of this study was to determine Cerebrolysin's effects on functional and histological outcomes in rats subjected to moderate CHI. METHODS: In this randomized, blinded, and vehicle-controlled preclinical trial, male adult Wistar rats subjected to moderate CHI received either Cerebrolysin treatment at a dose of 2.5 ml/kg (n = 13) or vehicle (saline, n = 13) intraperitoneally administered daily for 10 days, starting at 4 hours after i...
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn this population of trauma patients, burr hole surgery in the emergency department and decompressive craniectomy was associated with posttraumatic meningitis.
Source: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery - Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research
Conclusions No clinically significant brain injury (requiring intervention) was seen in this cohort. These findings support delaying imaging in neurologically intact children to obtain MRI after hospital admission, thus, limiting radiation exposure.
Source: Pediatric Emergency Care - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
The more seasons that NFL players spend playing in the league, the greater their risk of cognitive problems and depression, according to astudy published today inThe American Journal of Sports Medicine. Former NFL players who reported more concussion symptoms during playing years were at a particularly elevated risk for cognitive problems and depression and anxiety even 20 years after retirement compared with those who reported fewer symptoms, the authors noted.“Our findings confirm what some have suspected—a consistently and persistently elevated risk for men who play longer and who play in certain positions,&...
Source: Psychiatr News - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Andrea Roberts anxiety cognitive impairment concussions depression football NFL Source Type: research
Background: Although head injury (HI) is associated with offending behavior, there has been relatively little attention to female prisoners. This systematic review considers prevalence and characteristics of females prisoners with HI, with a view to...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Research Methods, Surveillance and Codes, Models Source Type: news
BACKGROUND: The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) decision rule demonstrates high sensitivity for identifying children at low risk for clinically important traumatic brain injury (ciTBI). As with the PECARN rule, the Israeli Decisi...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
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