A Qualitative Systematic Review of Effects of Provider Characteristics and Nonverbal Behavior on Pain, and Placebo and Nocebo Effects
Conclusion: Characteristics and nonverbal behaviors of experimenters/clinicians contribute to the elicitation and modulation of pain, placebo, and nocebo effects.IntroductionThe present qualitative review investigated whether the characteristics or nonverbal behavior (NB) of the person administrating painful stimulation affected pain or placebo/nocebo effects in the research participant. The placebo effect is a psychobiological response that may occur following the application of active and inactive interventions (1). Applying an inactive medication paired with positive information about its analgesic effects can reduce pain (2). Likewise, negative information can reverse the analgesic effect of the medication (3, 4) and is called a “nocebo effect” (5, 6). Classical conditioning (previous experience with a treatment) and verbal information about the efficacy of the treatment are involved in the induction of placebo effects and expectations, that a treatment will reduce a symptom (e.g., pain), mediate the effects of both processes (7, 8).Expecting that a procedure will increase pain may elicit anxiety and increase pain, whereas expecting that a procedure will decrease pain may reduce anxiety and thus reduce pain (9–12). As noted, placebo effects are induced by verbal information and/or classical conditioning [e.g., Refs. (2, 4, 12–14)]. However, other factors can modulate the experience of pain and placebo and nocebo effects. Treatments, whether active ...
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On the heels of studies showing hydroxychloroquine doesn't help patients in the hospital with Covid-19, a new study -- the first of its kind -- shows the drug doesn't work to prevent infection with the virus, either.
The United States should have 100 million doses of one candidate coronavirus vaccine by the end of the year, Dr. Anthony Fauci, the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and a member of the White House Coronavirus Task Force, said Tuesday.
The Trump administration chose 5 companies as the most likely to produce a vaccine. The tally of new cases is rising in the U.S., partly because of expanded testing. Italy ends travel restrictions.
Researchers say that a malaria drug President Donald Trump took to try to prevent COVID-19 proved ineffective for that in the first large, high-quality study to test it in health workers and others closely exposed to people with the disease
The first carefully controlled trial of hydroxychloroquine given to people exposed to the coronavirus did not show any benefit.
U.S. President Donald Trump had no side effects from a two-week course of hydroxychloroquine, an anti-malaria drug that can cause heart problems, after using it as a preventive measure against the coronavirus, his White House physician said on Wednesday.
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