A Qualitative Systematic Review of Effects of Provider Characteristics and Nonverbal Behavior on Pain, and Placebo and Nocebo Effects

Conclusion: Characteristics and nonverbal behaviors of experimenters/clinicians contribute to the elicitation and modulation of pain, placebo, and nocebo effects.IntroductionThe present qualitative review investigated whether the characteristics or nonverbal behavior (NB) of the person administrating painful stimulation affected pain or placebo/nocebo effects in the research participant. The placebo effect is a psychobiological response that may occur following the application of active and inactive interventions (1). Applying an inactive medication paired with positive information about its analgesic effects can reduce pain (2). Likewise, negative information can reverse the analgesic effect of the medication (3, 4) and is called a “nocebo effect” (5, 6). Classical conditioning (previous experience with a treatment) and verbal information about the efficacy of the treatment are involved in the induction of placebo effects and expectations, that a treatment will reduce a symptom (e.g., pain), mediate the effects of both processes (7, 8).Expecting that a procedure will increase pain may elicit anxiety and increase pain, whereas expecting that a procedure will decrease pain may reduce anxiety and thus reduce pain (9–12). As noted, placebo effects are induced by verbal information and/or classical conditioning [e.g., Refs. (2, 4, 12–14)]. However, other factors can modulate the experience of pain and placebo and nocebo effects. Treatments, whether active ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

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