Dementia: Paradigm shifting into high gear.

Dementia: Paradigm shifting into high gear. Alzheimers Dement. 2019 Apr 09;: Authors: Hachinski V Abstract Redressing the rising threat of dementia demands not only an increase, but a diversification of efforts. We need new approaches, trials, and partners. We cannot afford to continue to only round up the usual suspects, β amyloid, and tau and try to stop them with a single drug "silver bullet". Dementia of late onset is not a disease, but an amalgam of interactive pathologies on the shifting background of aging, requiring multimodal targeting. Cerebrovascular diseases coexist and coact with all major neurodegenerative pathologies, increasing two-fold the likelihood that they will manifest clinically. Cerebrovascular diseases need to be controlled, to give antidegenerative drugs a chance to succeed. This calls for new types of trials and designs. Stroke doubles the chances of developing dementia and decreases in stroke incidence correlate with decreases in dementia. Ninety percent of strokes are potentially preventable and so are a proportion of dementias. The stroke and dementia communities need to partner and complement the search for silver bullets with the golden opportunity of doing something now. PMID: 30979540 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

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Wei Li1†, Wei-Min Xiao1†, Yang-Kun Chen1*, Jian-Feng Qu1, Yong-Lin Liu1, Xue-Wen Fang2, Han-Yu Weng1 and Gen-Pei Luo11Department of Neurology, Dongguan People’s Hospital, Dongguan, China2Department of Radiology, Dongguan People’s Hospital, Dongguan, ChinaBackground: Anxiety is prevalent after a stroke. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of poststroke anxiety (PSA) remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and neuroimaging risk factors for development of PSA and examine the effects of PSA on activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life (...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
C-Reactive Protein and Risk of Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Xiaohui Qiu†, Yousheng Xiao†, Jingjing Wu, Lu Gan, Yanning Huang and Jin Wang* Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) has been identified as a common inflammation-related cytokine. Although publications indicate that CRP is associated with the pathogenesis of neurological disorders and deemed to be a “risk factor” for Parkinson's disease (PD), the evidence exists still indefinitely. Here...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Masahito Nakazaki, Masanori Sasaki, Yuko Kataoka-Sasaki, Shinichi Oka, Junpei Suzuki, Yuichi Sasaki, Hiroshi Nagahama, Kazuo Hashi, Jeffery D. Kocsis, Osamu HonmouAbstractCerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is not only a cause of vascular dementia (VD) but also a contributing factor to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The essential pathological feature of CSVD is the disruption of blood–brain barrier (BBB). Dysfunction of BBB due to degeneration of both endothelial cells and pericytes in capillaries leads to neuronal damage and progressive brain...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Conclusions: This study found relatively shorter survival after the diagnosis of dementia when compared to other populations. CVD still appeared as a major cause of that in this particular disease. Most debilitating type of dementia was DLB/PDD.
Source: Indian Journal of Palliative Care - Category: Palliative Care Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions and Perspectives In this review we have summarized the critical role phagocytosis plays in both CNS homeostasis and disease. While much progress has been made in recent years, many unanswered questions remain. How phagocytosis in the CNS is influenced by numerous factors, such as microenvironment or phagocytic target, have yet to be fully resolved. Additionally, the utilization of novel technologies, including in vivo imaging techniques (217), iPSC-derived microglia (213) and high-throughput screens (66), will likely contribute to further identification of phagocytic pathways and consequences of phagocytosis w...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Apelin-13 Suppresses Neuroinflammation Against Cognitive Deficit in a Streptozotocin-Induced Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease Through Activation of BDNF-TrkB Signaling Pathway Huaiqing Luo1, Yang Xiang1, Xiangping Qu1, Huijun Liu1, Chi Liu1, Guangyi Li2, Li Han3*† and Xiaoqun Qin1*† 1Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Science, Central South University, Changsha, China 2Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Changsha Medical University, Changsha, China 3Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Science, Changsha Medical University, Changsha, China Alzheimer&rsq...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Abstract Remyelination has been widely noticed as an important repair mechanism triggered after a stroke-induced white matter injury, but it often fails due to the lack of recruitment of the oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to the demyelinated area and the inadequate differentiation of OPCs. Racemic dl-3-n-butylphthalide (dl-NBP) has been reported to improve the functional recovery in animal models of vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ischemic stroke. Dl-NBP (70 mg/kg) by oral gavage for two weeks from day 7 after a stroke was administered in the study, the treatment promoted differentiation a...
Source: Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research
Light-Induced Pupillary Responses in Alzheimer's Disease Pratik S. Chougule1, Raymond P. Najjar1,2, Maxwell T. Finkelstein1, Nagaendran Kandiah3,4 and Dan Milea1,2,5* 1Department of Visual Neurosciences, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore 2The Ophthalmology &Visual Sciences ACP, Duke-National University of Singapore (NUS) Medical School, Singapore, Singapore 3Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore, Singapore 4Duke-National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore, Singapore 5Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore The impact of Alzheimer&...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Neurodegeneration is a distinguishing feature of many age related disorders. There are a number of factors that can modulate the pathology of these disorders. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are primarily involved in the maintenance of normal brain homeostasis by eliminating toxic peptides and compounds from the brain. Also, ABC transporters protect the brain from the unwanted effects of endogenous and exogenous toxins that can enter the brain parenchyma. Therefore, these transporters have the ability to determine the pathological outcomes of several neurological disorders. For instance, ABC trans...
Source: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research
Conclusion In this study, reduced CBF and FA and increased MD in the inner NAWM layers for both PVWMH and DWMH suggested extensive WM alterations beyond the visible WM lesions commonly observed on clinical MRI of svMCI subjects. CBF penumbras cover more extensive WM at risk than DTI penumbras, suggesting the likelihood that compromised CBF precedes white matter integrity changes, and CBF penumbras may be a potential target for the prevention of further microstructural white matter damage. The imaging parameters investigated, however, did not correlate to cognition. Author Contributions YZ, QX, and XG conceived and desig...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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