Autoantibody-associated schizophreniform psychoses: clinical symptomatology.

[Autoantibody-associated schizophreniform psychoses: clinical symptomatology]. Nervenarzt. 2019 Apr 09;: Authors: Endres D, Bechter K, Prüss H, Hasan A, Steiner J, Leypoldt F, Tebartz van Elst L Abstract According to present concepts, primary psychotic disorders in the schizophrenia spectrum are probably caused by a complex interaction between multigenetic vulnerability and causally relevant environmental factors. In contrast, secondary psychotic disorders are the result of likely identifiable organic factors either in terms of a first causation (etiology) or a secondary cause (pathogenesis). In this context, autoantibody(ab)-associated autoimmune encephalitis (AE) plays an increasingly important role. Within the group of ab-associated AE with neuropsychiatric symptoms, anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is the most prevalent one. Psychopathologically, polymorphic psychotic symptoms are often observed at onset of AE; however, over the course of this condition or even initially other neuropsychiatric phenomena are also common. The ill-defined entity of a steroid-responsive encephalopathy with thyroid antibodies (Hashimoto's encephalitis) is a heterogeneous syndrome that may also comprise isolated psychotic disorders presenting as classical schizophrenia. PMID: 30968197 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Der Nervenarzt - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Nervenarzt Source Type: research

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Catatonia is a rare condition that can occur in developmental disorders, but it is more frequently seen in schizophrenia. Recently, a high prevalence of cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities including the detection of antineuronal autoantibodies has been observed in psychotic patients. Among these autoimmune encephalopathies associated with a psychiatric condition, a great deal of attention has been paid to anti–N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) encephalitis, which may present, among other things, symptoms such as catatonia, which therefore imposes a differential diagnosis with respect to the early psychosis. The aim...
Source: Clinical Neuropharmacology - Category: Neurology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research
In this study, we enrolled 110 first-episode patients with schizophrenia (FEP) and 50 healthy controls (HC). Cognitive function and psychopathology were assessed using the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), respectively. NMDAR antibody levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results showed that FEP with schizophrenia exhibited cognitive deficits in all domains of the MCCB and had elevated levels of serum anti-NMDAR antibody compared with the healthy controls (9....
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In this study, we enrolled 110 first-episode patients with schizophrenia (FEP) and 50 healthy controls (HC). Cognitive function and psychopathology were assessed using the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS)Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), respectively. NMDAR antibody levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results showed that FEP with schizophrenia exhibited cognitive deficits in all domains of the MCCB and had elevated levels of serum anti-NMDAR antibody compared with the healthy controls (9.2 &plu...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Behav Immun Source Type: research
Schizophrenia is a phenotypically heterogeneous and poorly understood disorder. While its etiology is likely multifactorial, immune system dysfunction has increasingly been implicated in its development. As hallucinations and delusions occur frequently and prominently in autoimmune encephalitis (AE), numerous studies have sought to determine whether a small subset of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia possess anti-neuronal antibodies implicated in AE. Exploring this possibility is of clinical relevance, as identifying individuals with AE who have been misdiagnosed as having a primary psychotic disorder may allow for ...
Source: Neuropsychobiology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
This study focuses on presenting features of anti-NMDAr encephalitis (anti-NMDArE) in adults likely to be seen by a psychiatrist, to identify patterns of signs and symptoms that may promote early diagnosis.
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: There may be an association between schizophrenia and HNPP. In observational studies, the deletion of interest (chromosome 17p12) was nearly 10 times more common in schizophreniform patients than in controls. This potential association could be pathophysiologically explained by the role of PMP22, which is mainly expressed in the peripheral nervous system. However, PMP22 mRNA and protein can also be found in the brain. PMP22 seems to play an important role in regulating cell growth and myelination, functions that are disturbed in schizophrenia. Such a connection obviously cannot be clarified on the basis of one ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusions Toxoplasma gondii infection induces a strong innate and adaptive immune response. While the innate immunity is important for controlling the early stages of the infection (Yarovinsky, 2014), the adaptive immunity is critical for restricting the parasite replication during the later stages (Gazzinelli et al., 1992). Amongst the adaptive immune subsets, CD8 T cells are the primary effector cells while CD4 T cells play an essential helper role to maintain long-term immunity (Casciotti et al., 2002). Notwithstanding, a robust CD8 T cell immunity induced during acute phase of infection, does not result in the total...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion: This study found that HIV-infected pubertal children showed a delayed cortical maturation with atrophy. This abnormal pattern of cortical development may be the structural basis for cognitive impairment in HIV-infected children. Introduction Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related encephalopathy is one of the most serious complications of AIDS and is more common in children than in adults (1). At present, there are nearly 2 million children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world, almost all newly infected children are infected through mother-to-child transmission (2). Effec...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract Most patients with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis initially present with psychiatric symptoms. Although a delayed diagnosis may lead to a poor outcome, psychiatric symptoms that could differentiate anti-NMDAR encephalitis from other psychoses have not been fully investigated. We evaluated two patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis who were observed by psychiatrists from onset throughout the course of disease. Both patients exhibited disorientation, memory deficits, perceptual disturbances, hallucinations, and mood liability. Among those, altered perceptions were most prominent - in part...
Source: Neurocase - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
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