Outbreak of hepatitis A virus infection in Taiwan, June 2015 to September 2017.

Outbreak of hepatitis A virus infection in Taiwan, June 2015 to September 2017. Euro Surveill. 2019 Apr;24(14): Authors: Chen WC, Chiang PH, Liao YH, Huang LC, Hsieh YJ, Chiu CM, Lo YC, Yang CH, Yang JY Abstract The Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (CDC) were notified of increasing acute hepatitis A (AHA) in June 2015. Serum and/or stool from AHA patients and sewage samples were tested for hepatitis A virus (HAV). We defined outbreak cases as AHA patients with illness onset after June 2015 and with an HAV sequence less than 0.5% different from that of the TA-15 outbreak strain. We analysed characteristics and food exposures between outbreak and non-outbreak cases between January 2014 (start of enhanced surveillance) and February 2016. From June 2015 to September 2017, there were 1,563 AHA patients with a median age of 31 years (interquartile range (IQR): 26-38); the male-to-female ratio was 8.8 and 585 (37%) had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. TA-15 was detected in 82% (852/1,033) of AHA patients, and 14% (74/540) of sewage samples tested since July 2015. Infection with the TA-15 strain was associated with having HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI), recent oral-anal sex and men who have sex with men (MSM). The Taiwan CDC implemented an HAV vaccine campaign starting from October 2016 where 62% (15,487/24,879) of people at risk were vaccinated against HAV. We recommend HAV vaccination for at-risk populations and continu...
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 15 July 2019Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and MedicineAuthor(s): Emad I. Wafa, Sean M. Geary, Kathleen A. Ross, Jonathan T. Goodman, Balaji Narasimhan, Aliasger K. SalemAbstractThe primary objective of this study was to enhance the antitumor efficacy of a model cancer vaccine through co-delivery of pentaerythritol lipid A (PELA), an immunological adjuvant, and a model tumor antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), separately loaded into polyanhydride particles (PA). In vitro experiments showed that encapsulation of PELA into PA (PA-PELA) significantly enhanced its stimulatory capacity on...
Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
We report a clinical case of DRESS syndrome with liver injury, evaluated with the RegiSCAR scoring system as a "definite case" possibly induced by carbamazepine in a patient. PMID: 31299851 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Several outbreaks of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) were recently documented among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Europe. We investigated the HAV incidence among MSM in Amsterdam, the Netherlands; and HAV seroprevalence and HAV vaccination decision among MSM visiting the Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) clinic in Amsterdam. METHODS: Using surveillance data from 1992 to 2017 of MSM with acute HAV in Amsterdam, we estimated the incidence by calendar year and age. We explored HAV seroprevalence by calendar year and age, determinants for HAV seropositivity, and opting-in/out for HAV vaccinat...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Conclusions Apart West Nile virus (78), thousands of congenital microcephaly cases, fetal brain tissue damage and neurological syndromes have been associated with ZIKV infection. Unfortunately, the epidemics of this mosquito born, and a relative stable virus is on a rise. Although congenital microcephaly is a rare disorder however, due to lack of standardized diagnostic test facilities, the incidence in the geographically widespread ZIKV epidemic regions is higher. Animals studies showed that ZIKV is a neurotropic virus. It directly targets the developing embryonic brain cells by inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Between January and May in 2018, 17 male cases of hepatitis A were reported in Yokohama, Japan. Of these, 14 identified as men who have sex with men. The viral sequence in this outbreak was same as that of the recent European and Taiwanese outbreaks strain.
Source: Sexually Transmitted Diseases - Category: Sexual Medicine Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Abstract Nearly 1 million people become infected every day with any of the four major curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs), namely trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Despite huge global incidence, STIs remain as neglected diseases. The success of antiretrovirals for halting progression to AIDS in HIV-infected individuals and for stopping HIV transmission to uninfected contacts, either as pre- or post-exposure -prophylaxis, has to lead to increased risky sexual behaviors through risk compensation. Recent epidemics and outbreaks of STIs among men having sex with men reflect the global loss...
Source: AIDS Reviews - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research
Authors: Alventosa Mateu C, Urquijo Ponce JJ, Diago Madrid M Abstract There has been an increase in the incidence rates in recent years of sexually transmitted diseases within the cohort of males who have sex with other men (MSM). An outbreak of acute hepatitis due to the hepatitis A virus was reported in 2017, both nationally and internationally. The sexual practices of this cohort are strongly implicated as a mechanism of infection. This situation was assessed in our health district and the incidence rate of this disease in 2017 was higher than usual. MSM practices are the potential cause of transmission in 52% o...
Source: Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Rev Esp Enferm Dig Source Type: research
Authors: Comelli A, Izzo I, Casari S, Spinetti A, Bergamasco A, Castelli F Abstract Since June 2016, an outbreak of hepatitis A has been reported in Europe. Here we report the HAV outbreak in Brescia (Northern Italy) from July 2016 to July 2017. We actively recorded all HAV cases defined by detection of HAV IgM antibodies in serum. Data on sexual behaviour, travel attitudes, concomitant sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), clinical presentation and laboratory results were collected. Forty-two confirmed cases were recorded: 25 (60%) were MSM and reported sexual contact at risk of STDs. Compared to 2015 and the firs...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infez Med Source Type: research
ConclusionsOngoing hepatitis A outbreak in Barcelona affects primarily the MSM community and is phylogenetically linked to current hepatitis A outbreaks described in other European countries. As a result of the high admission rate, these outbreaks may impact the admission pattern of referral liver units. Control measures, for example vaccinations programs tailored to the MSM community, must be taken to control further spreading.
Source: Liver International - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: BRIEF DEFINITIVE REPORT Source Type: research
ConclusionsOngoing hepatitis A outbreak in Barcelona affects primarily the MSM community and is phylogenetically linked to current hepatitis A outbreaks described in other European countries. Due to the high admission rate, these outbreaks may impact the admission pattern of referral liver units. Control measures, e.g. vaccinations programs tailored to the MSM community, must be taken to control further spreading.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Liver International - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Brief Definitive Report Source Type: research
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