The Long Pentraxin PTX3 as a Humoral Innate Immunity Functional Player and Biomarker of Infections and Sepsis

In this study they also showed PTX3 localized in NETs formed after neutrophil activation (5). Proteomics analysis revealed that PTX3 forms complexes with two anti-microbial proteins [azurocidin (AZU1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)] associated to NETs (30). More recently, PTX3 localization in NETs has been confirmed, and the colocalization with AZU1 and MPO has been defined more accurately (31). Further investigation will be needed to understand the involvement of PTX3 interaction with AZU1 and MPO in their antibacterial role during NET formation. Regulation of Complement Activation PTX3 interaction with microorganisms is not restricted to directly increase phagocytosis. PTX3 can be used as a sensor by complement to rapidly recognize microbial patterns and enhance its activation and its antimicrobial activity. Once bound, PTX3 recruits the complement component C1q and activate the classical pathway of the complement cascade, leading to C3 deposition on apoptotic cells (32). In contrast, the interaction between PTX3 and C1q in the fluid phase prevents complement deposition onto apoptotic cells and their clearance by dendritic cells (33). PTX3 also interacts and activates the lectin pathway of complement. Indeed, Ma et al. demonstrated that PTX3 bound on A. fumigatus conidia interacts with ficolin-2 and leads to an increase of complement deposition on A. fumigatus (34). Later on, this group showed that the interaction of PTX3 with ficolin-1 on the cell surface of apoptotic cells l...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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