Distinct Functions of Bombyx mori Peptidoglycan Recognition Protein 2 in Immune Responses to Bacteria and Viruses

In this study, we cloned two forms of BmPGRP2: BmPGRP2-1 bound to DAP-type PGN to activate Imd signaling, whereas BmPGRP2-2 was induced by BmNPV and negatively regulated the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway to inhibit cell apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that the two forms of BmPGRP2 have distinct functions in the host response to pathogenic bacteria and viruses. The present study confirms that PGRP was induced by viruses to escape host antiviral immunity. Materials and Methods Silkworm Strain, Cell Lines, and Viruses B. mori strains Dazao (DZ) and 932 were maintained at the Gene Resource Library of Domesticated Silkworm (Southwest University, Chongqing, China). BmE and BmN4-SID1 cell lines (54) were cultured at 27°C. BmNPV (Guangdong strain) and BmNPV expressing green fluorescent protein (BmNPV-GFP) were collected from the haemolymph of infected silkworm larvae and the infected BmE cells, respectively (55, 56). Cloning, Reverse Transcription (RT-)PCR, and Quantitative (q)PCR Analysis Based on bioinformatics analysis, primers were designed to amplify the open reading frame (ORF) of BmPGRP2 (BmPGRP2-1 ORF and BmPGRP2-2 ORF) by PCR. The 3′ untranslated region (UTR) was amplified by 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Six forward primers (5F-1,-2,-3,-4,-5, and-6) and two reverse primers (5R-1 and-2) were used to amplify the 5′ UTR. The eggs of 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-day-old, hatched silkworm, first insta...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Halogenated boroxine dipotassium trioxohydroxytetrafluorotriborate K2[B3O3F4OH] inhibits emerging multidrug-resistant and β-lactamase-producing opportunistic pathogens. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2019 Aug 16;:1-21 Authors: Maravić A, Rončević T, Krce L, Ilić N, Galić B, Čikeš Čulić V, Carev I Abstract Halogenated boroxine dipotassium trioxohydroxytetrafluorotriborate, K2[B3O3F4OH] (boroxine) was previously shown to be very effective in inhibition of several carcinoma cell lines, including the skin cancer. Here, we investigated its antimicrobial potential by targeting the multidrug-resistan...
Source: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Dev Ind Pharm Source Type: research
Authors: Abdellatif AAH Abstract Numerous normal and tumors cells are well-known to express the somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) on their surface which make the receptor be useful for tumor scintigraphy. Thus, identification of SSTRs is beneficial, especially SSTR2. The somatostatin analogue, Octreotide (OCT) was chosen as a ligand, as it is known to selectively bind to SSTR2. Moreover, polyethylene glycol (PEG), 8armPEG was used as a branched PEG to provide a low non-specific cell binding and easily chemical modification. OCT, and fluorescein (Flu) were conjugated to branched PEG using a water-soluble carbodiimide (...
Source: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Dev Ind Pharm Source Type: research
Conclusions Despite a limited number of patients, a male predominance and late-onset psoriasis were frequently observed. Although interferon therapy for HCV can exacerbate psoriasis, it is not contraindicated. All conventional treatments and anti-TNFs can be used, provided that there is strict collaboration with hepatologists. PMID: 31418622 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Dermatological Treatment - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Dermatolog Treat Source Type: research
Conclusion: Uveitis episodes happened more frequently under rainy and windy conditions. Most factors were not significantly correlated to attacks. PMID: 31418617 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Ocul Immunol Inflamm Source Type: research
Conclusion: EBE in a North American population showed poor visual recovery despite treatment. It was most commonly due to gram-positive bacteria with the most common infectious source being endocarditis. Malignancy should be considered in patients with bilateral EBE. PMID: 31418616 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Ocul Immunol Inflamm Source Type: research
We appreciate the interest that Roncati and Piscioli showed in our recent publication, in which we evaluated the risk of sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases in nonulcerated, T1b melanoma by the new 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging criteria.1 The authors propose a model of melanoma progression based on the transition from a radial growth phase to a vertical growth phase (VGP) that can predict biologic aggressiveness and propensity to metastasize.
Source: Journal of the American College of Surgeons - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Letter Source Type: research
In comparison with the 7th Edition, the 8th Edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for melanoma no longer considers the mitotic count in the a or b T1 categorization, but it adopts a sub-stratification based on Breslow depth: T1a ≤ 0.8 mm without ulceration and T1b ≤ 0.8 mm with ulceration or 0.8 to 1 mm with or without ulceration. Skin melanoma can be subdivided by Breslow depth into thin melanoma (≤1 mm) or thick melanoma (>1  mm). According to the AJCC 8th Edition, a and b specifications are assigned based on ulceration and depth, which replace the mitotic count for square millimeter.
Source: Journal of the American College of Surgeons - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Letter Source Type: research
Prebiopsy multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) combined with targeted biopsy is associated with improved detection of clinically significant prostate cancer compared with transrectal ultrasonography-guided systemic biopsy alone, a systematic review and meta-analysis reveals.Reuters Health Information
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Medscape Today News Source Type: news
Authors: Zheng S PMID: 31416994 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Hong Kong Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: Hong Kong Med J Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2019Source: The LancetAuthor(s): Michel D Ferrari, Hans Christoph Diener, Xiaoping Ning, Maja Galic, Joshua M Cohen, Ronghua Yang, Matthias Mueller, Andrew H Ahn, Yael Carmeli Schwartz, Melissa Grozinski-Wolff, Lindsay Janka, Messoud AshinaSummaryBackgroundAntibodies targeting calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or its receptor have shown efficacy in the prevention of migraine attacks. We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of fremanezumab, a fully humanised CGRP antibody, in patients with migraine who had previously not responded to two to four classes of migraine pre...
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
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