Training Change Agents how to Implement Formal Preference Assessments: a Review of the Literature

AbstractFormal preference assessments are commonly implemented as a way to evaluate potential reinforcers for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, developmental disabilities, and intellectual disabilities. Today there are numerous formal preference assessments that can be used clinically, and which have been evaluated empirically. Therefore, formal preference assessments are a procedure that behavior analysts, professionals (e.g., teachers or paraprofessionals), and students are trained to implement accurately. This review of the literature included 19 articles, with 21 experiments, that evaluated different way to train change agents to implement a formal preference assessment. We evaluated each of the experiments along multiple dimensions (e.g., participant demographics, training procedures, and percentage of non-overlapping data). From this analysis we provided information on the current status of research on training change agents on how to implement formal preference assessments, reveal limitations in the current literature base, and provide suggestion for future clinicians, researchers, and certifying bodies.
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - Category: Disability Source Type: research

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ConclusionsOur results indicate the prevalence of multiple comorbidities varies across the lifespan in DS, and in adults, rates for psychiatric comorbidities show different patterns for males and females relative to expected population rates. Further, most health comorbidities are not associated with poorer cognitive outcomes in DS, apart from autism and epilepsy. It is essential for clinicians to consider such differences to provide appropriate care and treatment for those with DS and to provide prognostic information relating to cognitive outcomes in those with comorbidities.
Source: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractIntellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are two of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Both disorders are extremely heterogenous, and only ~  40% of reported cases have so far been attributed to genetic mutations. Of the many cellular processes that are affected, the ubiquitin system (UbS) is of particular relevance in that it can rapidly regulate multiple signaling cascades simultaneously. The UbS is a post-translational modification process that revolves around the covalent attachment of a ubiquitin moiety to a substrate, thereby influencing different elements of protein b...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
NHS England asked an “inadequate” hospital for people with learning disabilities and autism to admit a patient, despite the service having a “voluntary” ban on admissions in place — and shortly before inspectors decided to impose a legal restriction.
Source: HSJ - Category: UK Health Source Type: news
Patient safety is the number one priority in health care as safety is considered at every level of a health care organization (e.g., building, equipment, communication, processes for medications, treatments, and surgical procedures). Addressing the welfare of patients can be challenging, yet for some of the most vulnerable patients (e.g., special needs, disabilities and mental and social health issues), even the most routine nursing requests can put them at a safety risk. Simulations provide an opportunity for nursing students and professional nurses with realistic experiences caring for individuals with unique needs, espe...
Source: Clinical Simulation in Nursing - Category: Nursing Authors: Tags: Featured Article Source Type: research
We report seven, unrelated patients with developmental delays or intellectual disability and heterozygous, de novo sequence variants in JMJD1C. All patients had developmental delays, but there were no consistent additional findings. Two patients were reported to have seizures for which there was no other identified cause. De novo, deleterious sequence variants in JMJD1C have previously been reported in patients with autism spectrum disorder and a phenotype resembling classical Rett syndrome, but only one JMJD1C variant has undergone functional evaluation. In all of the seven patients in this report, there was a plausible, ...
Source: European Journal of Medical Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Eur J Med Genet Source Type: research
AbstractN ε‐lysine acetylation of nascent glycoproteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen regulates the efficiency of the secretory pathway. The ER acetylation machinery consists of the membrane transporter, acetyl‐CoA transporter 1 (AT‐1/SLC33A1), and two acetyltransferases, ATase1/NAT8B and ATase2/NAT8. Dysfunctional ER acetylation is associated with severe neurological diseases with duplication ofAT ‐1/SLC33A1 being associated with autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and dysmorphism. Neuron ‐specific AT‐1 overexpression in the mouse alters neuron morphology and function, caus...
Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur pilot RCT demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of using high frequency rTMS targeting DLPFC in youth and young adults with autism. No evidence for efficacy of active versus sham rTMS on EF performance was found. However, we found promising preliminary evidence of EF performance improvement following active versus sham rTMS in participants with ASD with more severe adaptive functioning deficits. Future work could focus on examining efficacy of rTMS in this higher-need population.Clinical Trial RegistrationRepetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for Executive Function Deficits in Autism S...
Source: Brain Stimulation - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
This article describes and discusses the indications, technical aspects and results of refractive surgery for children with developmental delay and intellectual disability. PMID: 31940059 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Der Ophthalmologe - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Ophthalmologe Source Type: research
___ Parents pay thousands for ‘brain training’ to help kids with ADHD and autism. But does it work? (NBC News): “…As the number of children diagnosed with ADHD and autism surges in the U.S., according to federal data, and as parents become exasperated with treatments that don’t work or involve medications that carry the risk of side effects, neurotechnology industry analysts predict the demand for programs like these will only grow… Much of the growth in brain training is in apps and games that people use at home or in school, said Alvaro Fernandez, CEO of SharpBrains, a research firm ...
Source: SharpBrains - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Cognitive Neuroscience Education & Lifelong Learning Technology adhd autism Brain Balance brain training brain training centers BrainRx Direct-to-Consumer LearningRx Neurotechnology Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, school-aged children with CP very often screened positive for ASD and/or ADHD. The prevalence of ASD and ADHD is most likely underestimated in children with CP. These screening findings require further investigations.
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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