Protection Afforded By Avian Influenza Vaccination Programs Consisting Of A Novel RNA Particle And An Inactivated Avian Influenza Vaccine Against A Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Challenge In Layer Chickens Up To 18 Weeks Post Vaccination.

Protection Afforded By Avian Influenza Vaccination Programs Consisting Of A Novel RNA Particle And An Inactivated Avian Influenza Vaccine Against A Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Challenge In Layer Chickens Up To 18 Weeks Post Vaccination. Avian Pathol. 2019 Apr 09;:1-34 Authors: Ladman BS, Gelb J, Sauble LA, Murphy MV, Spackman E Abstract The efficacies of an oil adjuvanted-inactivated reverse genetics derived H5 avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccine and an alphavirus replicon RNA particle (RP) AIV vaccine were evaluated in commercial leghorn chickens. Challenge utilized A/Turkey/MN/12582/2015, an isolate representing the U.S. H5N2 Clade 2.3.4.4 responsible for the 2015 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epornitic in commercial poultry the United States. As part of long term, 36-week study, chickens were challenged at seven weeks of age after receiving a single vaccination, at 18 weeks of age after following a vaccine prime-single boost and at 36 weeks of age after a prime- double-boost. All vaccine programs reduced virus oropharyngeal and cloacal shedding and mortality compared to the non-vaccinated control birds however, chickens receiving at least one administration of the RP vaccine generally had diminished viral shed especially from the cloacal swabbings. A detectable serum antibody response and protection was observed through 18 weeks post vaccination. Our data suggest that in conjunction with a comprehensive eradication, enhanced bio...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

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Armando Isibasi Constantino López-Macías The clinical effects and immunological response to the influenza vaccine in women who later become pregnant remain to be thoroughly studied. Here, we report the medical outcomes of 40 women volunteers who became pregnant after vaccination with an experimental virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 (influenza A(H1N1)pdm09) and their infants. When included in the VLP vaccine trial, none of the women were pregnant and were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (1) placebo, (2) 15 μg dose of VLP vaccine, or (3) ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In March 2013, the first human case of zoonotic H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was reported in China. This virus has been circulating in domestic poultry in China while mutating to highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) since 2017, which caused human infections and poultry outbreaks. In 2019, a novel reassortant H7N2 HPAIV, A/chicken/China/SJZ1/2019(SJZ1), was isolated from H7 –Re2-vaccinated layers. We analyzed the genetic, pathogenic, and antigenic characteristics of SJZ1. Analysis of the entire SJZ1 genomic sequence revealed that it comprised at least two different sources; the PB2, PB1, PA, HA (H7), M, and NS ...
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
In this study, we aimed to generate Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vectored H7 serotype-specific vaccines by expressing the consensus sequence of the HA protein. Conventional NDV strain LaSota vector and a chimeric NDV vector containing the avian paramyxovirus type-2 F and HN protein were able to express the consensus sequence of HA protein. The protective efficacy of vaccines was evaluated in broiler chickens and in turkeys. One-day-old poults were prime immunized with the chimeric vector expressing the HA protein followed by boost immunization with LaSota vector expressing the HA protein or co-expressing the HA and NA pro...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
This article summarizes Canada's pandemic public health measures strategy, as described in the recently updated CPIP Public Health Measures Annex. The strategy builds on lessons learned during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Key elements of the public health measures strategy include individual measures (e.g. hand hygiene, self-isolation when ill), community-based measures (e.g. school closures, cancellation of mass gatherings), management of cases and close contacts, travel and border-related actions and public education. Factors that influence the effectiveness of public health measures in a pandemic include the pandemic epidemi...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research
In this study we aimed to verify clinical ND suspicions in poultry holdings in Egypt suffering from respiratory distress and elevated mortality, comparing two groups of ND-vaccinated poultry holdings in three governorates. Besides testing for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), samples were screened for infectious bronchits virus (IBV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) by RT-qPCR as well as by non-directed cell-culture approach on LMH-cells. Virulent NDV was confirmed only in group A (n = 16) comprising small-scale holdings. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein gene of 11 NDV-positive samples obtained from th...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Conclusions: Human challenge studies and systems biology approaches are important tools that should be used in concert to advance our understanding of influenza infection and provide targets for novel therapeutics and immunizations. Introduction Although influenza virus was recognized as an important pathogen over a century ago, influenza continues to cause a significant burden of disease. In the United States alone, it's estimated that in the 2017–2018 season there were 959,000 hospitalizations related to influenza illness, and 79,400 deaths (CDC, 2018). Worldwide, WHO estimates that annual influenza...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
We describe the unexpected binding of S-layer to cells devoid of DC-SIGN but also confirm that the presence of DC-SIGN was essential for S-layer’s antiviral activity. S-layer protein exerted its antiviral effect with different kinetics than mannan, a known viral inhibitor that also acts on DC-SIGN (Yu et al., 2017). Together our results suggest that inhibition of viral entry by S-layer occurs via a novel S-layer/DC-SIGN interaction. Materials and Methods Isolation of S-Layer Proteins S-layer proteins were extracted from overnight cultures of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 cells grown in MRS medium at 37°C by using 6...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Although influenza science has come a long way since the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic, influenza continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This review provides current, evidence-based recommendations regarding influenza prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Nurse practitioners can help reduce influenza-associated morbidity and mortality by receiving annual influenza vaccinations, encouraging patients and community members to receive annual influenza vaccinations, developing and implementing strategies to improve influenza vaccination rates, encouraging preventive personal and community nonpharmaceutical inte...
Source: The Journal for Nurse Practitioners - Category: Nursing Authors: Tags: Featured Article Source Type: research
Rui Dong1, Lily He1, Rong Lucy He2 and Stephen S.-T. Yau1* 1Department of Mathematical Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China 2Department of Biological Sciences, Chicago State University, Chicago, IL, United States Classification of DNA sequences is an important issue in the bioinformatics study, yet most existing methods for phylogenetic analysis including Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) are time-consuming and computationally expensive. The alignment-free methods are popular nowadays, whereas the manual intervention in those methods usually decreases the accuracy. Also, the interactions among nucleotid...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Authors: Chen Y, Wen Y Abstract In 2013 in mainland China, a novel avian influenza virus H7N9 began to infect humans and had aroused severe fatality in the infected humans, followed by the annual outbreaks. By methods of GIS and kriging interpolation, we get the geographical distributions. We obtain the longitudinal characteristics of these outbreaks based on statistics and diagrams. After these spatiotemporal distributions, an eco-epidemiological model is established and analyzed. In this model, the general incidence functions, the factor of fully killed infected poultry, and the virus in environment are taken int...
Source: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine - Category: Statistics Tags: Comput Math Methods Med Source Type: research
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