SOCS and Herpesviruses, With Emphasis on Cytomegalovirus Retinitis
SOCS and Herpesviruses, With Emphasis on Cytomegalovirus Retinitis Christine I. Alston1,2 and Richard D. Dix1,2* 1Department of Biology, Viral Immunology Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, United States 2Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins provide selective negative feedback to prevent pathogeneses caused by overstimulation of the immune system. Of the eight known SOCS proteins, SOCS1 and SOCS3 are the best studied, and systemic deletion of either gene causes early lethality in mice. Many viruses, including herpesviruses such as herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus, can manipulate expression of these host proteins, with overstimulation of SOCS1 and/or SOCS3 putatively facilitating viral evasion of immune surveillance, and SOCS suppression generally exacerbating immunopathogenesis. This is particularly poignant within the eye, which contains a diverse assortment of specialized cell types working together in a tightly controlled microenvironment of immune privilege. When the immune privilege of the ocular compartment fails, inflammation causing severe immunopathogenesis and permanent, sight-threatening damage may occur, as in the case of AIDS-related human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis. Herein we review how SOCS1 and SOCS3 impact the virologic, immunologic, and/or pathologic outcomes of herpesvirus infection with particular emphasis on retinitis...
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