Effect of Inflammation on the Process of Stroke Rehabilitation and Poststroke Depression

Conclusions Stroke comprises ischemic stroke and ICH. The immuno-inflammatory process is involved in neural plasticity following events such as a hemorrhage or ischemic stroke. After ischemia, astrocytes, microglia, and MDMs play important roles during rehabilitation with the modulation of cytokines or chemokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1. Moreover, MiRNAs are also important posttranscriptional regulators in these glial mitochondrial responses to cerebral ischemia. ICH involves processes similar and different to those seen in ischemia, including neuronal injury, astrocytic and microglial/macrophage activation, and neutrophil and T lymphocyte invasion after ICH. Immunological hypothesis is also one of the pathophysiological mechanisms of PSD. To date, many pharmacotherapies have been suggested as having an anti-inflammatory function in stroke rehabilitation, including those involving minocycline, melanocortin, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, UTI, statin, vinpocetine, RO27-3225, scutellarin, and sexual hormones. Other potential therapies involve the vascular endothelial growth factor, high-mobility group box 1, corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor, the vagus nerve system, nicotine and cyclooxygenase 2, and therapeutic hypothermia. In PSD, very few anti-inflammatory treatments have been studied, including the use of acetylsalicylic acid, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and statins. Author Contributions MF, LZ, and XJ wrote the first draft. RC and WY...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

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