Pandemic Preparedness and Response in Fragile, Conflict and Violence (FCV) Situations

Source: World Bank. Published: 3/18/2019. This eight-page document discusses five questions about robust pandemic preparedness and response, which is necessary to address vulnerability and to prevent, detect, and respond to an outbreak in fragile, conflict, and violence (FCV) situations. It discusses why agencies should invest in pandemic preparedness in FCV situations, why FCV settings are more vulnerable to pandemics, what interventions could be considered, and why pandemic preparedness should be monitored and evaluated. (PDF)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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Emergence and re-emergence of respiratory virus infections represent a significant threat to global public health, as they occur seasonally and less frequently (such in the case of influenza virus) as pandemic infections. Some of these viruses have been in the human population for centuries and others had recently emerged as a public health problem. Influenza viruses have been affecting the human population for a long time now; however, their ability to rapidly evolve through antigenic drift and antigenic shift causes the emergence of new strains. A recent example of these events is the avian-origin H7N9 influenza virus ou...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Authors: Mammas IN, Theodoridou M, Thiagarajan P, Melidou A, Papaioannou G, Korovessi P, Koutsaftiki C, Papatheodoropoulou A, Calachanis M, Dalianis T, Spandidos DA Abstract This year marks the 100th anniversary of the 1918 Spanish flu outbreak on the Greek Aegean Sea island of Skyros, which devastated its population in less than 30 days. According to Constantinos Faltaits's annals published in 1919, the influenza attack on the island of Skyros commenced acutely 'like a thunderbolt' on the 27th of October, 1918 and was exceptionally severe and fatal. At that time, the viral cause of the influenza had not been detec...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
In “The Pandemic Century” Mark Honigsbaum covers nine outbreaks that shaped how we think and respond to diseases.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Books and Literature The Pandemic Century: One Hundred Years of Panic, Hysteria, and Hubris (Book) Mark Honigsbaum Epidemics Influenza SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) Ebola Virus Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Source Type: news
ConclusionsWGS results allowed for mapping of short reads from APW-enriched specimen and culture isolate spotted filter papers this provided valuable molecular epidemiological sequence information onV.cholerae strains from remote, low-resource settings. These results identified the presence of co-infecting pathogens while providing rare insight into the specificV.cholerae strains causing outbreaks in cholera-endemic areas.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONSAs healthcare systems continue to grow, a more flexible, regional approach to pandemic planning with structured interventions that can be tailored to each site is vital to maintain a safe environment.
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus that is primarily transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. Though reports of an illness consistent with chikungunya date back over 200 years, CHIKV only gained worldwide attention during a massive pandemic that began in East Africa in 2004. Chikungunya, the clinical illness caused by CHIKV, is characterized by a rapid onset of high fever and debilitating joint pain, though in practice, etiologic confirmation of CHIKV requires the availability and use of specific laboratory diagnostics. Similar to infections caused by other arboviruses, CHIKV infections are most commonly detected w...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Minireviews Source Type: research
A multi drug resistant Salmonella enterica 4,[5],12:i- of sequence type 34 (monophasic S. Typhimurium ST34) is a current pandemic clone associated with livestock, particularly pigs, and numerous outbreaks in the human population. A large genomic island, termed SGI-4, is present in the monophasic Typhimurium ST34 clade and absent from other S. Typhimurium strains. SGI-4 consists of 87 open reading frames including sil and pco genes previously implicated in resistance to copper (Cu) and silver, and multiple genes predicted to be involved in mobilisation and transfer by conjugation. SGI-4 was excised from the chromosome, circ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
(Taylor&Francis Group) The most severe pandemic in recent history, killing some 50 million people worldwide, the Spanish influenza, may have emerged up to two years earlier than previously believed. And, according to a new and influential study, its early manifestation was ignored at the time as a 'minor infection.'
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
[Guardian] Besides the loss of many lives, outbreaks of pandemics or epidemics could cost Nigeria trillions of naira if adequate preparations are not made to contain health emergencies.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
Source: World Health Organization (WHO). Published: 5/15/2019. This online resource was launched to guide the development of new health products for which there are limited markets or incentives for research and development. The summary of the published profiles outlines eight to 10 key characteristics for the development of health products, including medicines, vaccines, and diagnostics.The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015 and other recent pandemics have highlighted the urgent need for centralized information to guide and improve coordination of efforts to develop new health products for neglected diseases and populations. (Text)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
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