Bacteria from WW I soldier offer clues to cholera epidemics
Scientists have mapped the genome of a strain of cholera from a WW I British soldier. It could provide insights on cholera outbreaks today.
Ellen Waters is the Director of Development at Doctors of the World UK. She is passionate about access to healthcare around the world and spent four years in India working for human rights organisations. On Thursday 14th March, Cyclone Idai swept Mozambique, leaving behind it a trail of destruction and death. Organisations from all around the world mobilised in just a few hours to get help to the population hit. Rapid intervention is key to save lives, but there is an often hidden need to provide healthcare for a long time after the disaster, while reconstruction takes place. On World Health Day, I want to bri...
Researchers from the Johns Hopkins Center for Humanitarian Health have offered20 recommendations to mitigate future cholera outbreaks in Yemen, where an epidemic that erupted in September 2016 resulted in more than 1 million suspected cases and some 2300 deaths over the next 22 months. Their report also serves as a guide for other regions where humanitarian crises develop.
[East African] More than a hundred children in Democratic Republic of Congo have died of measles since the start of the year, an outbreak that has added to deadly epidemics of cholera and Ebola, the UN said on Wednesday.
ConclusionThis evaluation has demonstrated that the sensitivity and specificity of Cholkit is similar to the commercially available test, Crystal VC when used in field settings for detectingV.cholerae from stool specimens. The findings from this study suggest that the Cholkit could be a possible alternative for cholera endemic regions whereV.cholerae O1 is the major causative organism causing cholera.
Source: Solidarites International. Published: 3/2018. The aim of this 116-page operational manual is to help missions improve their water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) response strategies in the context of recurrent cholera outbreaks. It contains key elements to guide teams in setting up cholera epidemic response and disease prevention programs in endemo-epidemic areas. Its three parts cover general information on cholera, before and between epidemics, and response to cholera epidemics. (PDF)
Scientists have found that a strain of cholera causing an epidemic in Yemen – the worst in recorded history – came from eastern Africa and was probably borne into Yemen by migrants.
(Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute) The most likely source of the cholera epidemic in Yemen has been discovered by scientists. Through the use of genomic sequencing, scientists estimate the strain of cholera causing the current outbreak in Yemen -- the worst cholera outbreak in recorded history -- came from Eastern Africa and entered Yemen with the migration of people in and out of the region. Genomics can enable researchers to estimate the risk of future cholera outbreaks and help better target interventions.
This article discusses the recent cholera epidemic in Haiti, its origin and spread throughout Haiti, the specific nature and microbiologic characteristics of the pathogen, and ongoing disease management and control efforts. Importantly, this article suggests a future research agenda identifying best strategies for eliminating cholera in Haiti.
The objective of this 108-page report from the Center for Humanitarian Health was to identify lessons learned from the preparedness and detection phase to the end of the second wave of the cholera epidemic in Yemen in 2016-2018 to better prepare for future outbreaks in Yemen and similar contexts. It discusses how prior to the outbreak, Yemen did not have a sufficient cholera preparedness and response plan, and makes 20 recommendations for future preparedness and response. (PDF)
Abstract The correlation between cholera epidemics and climatic drivers, in particular seasonal tropical rainfall, has been studied in a variety of contexts owing to its documented relevance. Several mechanistic models of cholera transmission have included rainfall as a driver by focusing on two possible transmission pathways: either by increasing exposure to contaminated water (e.g. due to worsening sanitary conditions during water excess), or water contamination by freshly excreted bacteria (e.g. due to washout of open-air defecation sites or overflows). Our study assesses the explanatory power of these differen...